short stature

Joint Laxity, Short Stature, and Myopia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Three of four brothers in one family had high myopia and two had retinal detachments as well as iris and chorioretinal colobomas.  In a second family with five sibs a teenage female was reported to have glaucoma and vision of legal blindness.  She and one brother had high myopia as well (parameters not reported).

Systemic Features: 

In one consanguineous family a brother and sister had multiple large joint dislocations including elbows, hips, knees and ankles.  The sister exhibited severe kyphoscoliosis while her brother had only mild kyphosis.  A single individual in each of the two sibships had hearing loss.

Three brothers in another consanguineous family had joint laxity and mild pectus carinatum.

Short stature was noted in all 5 affected individuals.  Cognitive development was reported as normal in all 5 individuals.

Genetics

Five individuals from 2 consanguineous Saudi sibships have been reported.  Homozygous mutations in the GZF1 gene (20p11.21) segregated as expected for an autosomal recessive disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.   Retinal detachment surgery and joint dislocation reduction should be considered in appropriate individuals.

References
Article Title: 

GZF1 Mutations Expand the Genetic Heterogeneity of Larsen Syndrome

Patel N, Shamseldin HE, Sakati N, Khan AO, Softa A, Al-Fadhli FM, Hashem M, Abdulwahab FM, Alshidi T, Alomar R, Alobeid E, Wakil SM, Colak D, Alkuraya FS. GZF1 Mutations Expand the Genetic Heterogeneity of Larsen Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 May 4;100(5):831-836.

PubMed ID: 
28475863

3MC Syndromes

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The major ocular features involve the periocular structures.  These result in the typical facial dysmorphism and include hypertelorism, blepharoptosis, blepharophimosis, and highly arched eyebrows. Ptosis, unilateral or bilateral, can be present.

One patient was reported to have unilateral aniridia and a corneal leucoma.  Tear duct atresia was reported in another individual.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic features are highly variable in their presence and severity.   Facial clefting, growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are present about half the time in some combination while craniosynostosis, urogenital anomalies, and radioulnar synostosis are seen in about a third of individuals.  More rare features include cardiac defects and abdominal midline defects (omphalocele and diastasis recti).

Genetics

This condition (3MC) is now postulated to include at least 3 disorders (Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale syndromes) and considered here as a single autosomal recessive disease complex with overlapping clinical features that requires genotyping for diagnostic separation.  These are: 3MC1 syndrome (257920) resulting from homozygous mutations in the MASP1 gene (3q27.3), 3MC2 syndrome (265050) caused by mutations in the COLEC11 gene (2p25.3) and 3MC3 (248340) with mutations in the COLEC10 gene (8q24.12).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective general treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development

Munye MM, Diaz-Font A, Ocaka L, Henriksen ML, Lees M, Brady A, Jenkins D, Morton J, Hansen SW, Bacchelli C, Beales PL, Hernandez-Hernandez V. COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development. PLoS Genet. 2017 Mar 16;13(3):e1006679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006679. eCollection 2017 Mar.

PubMed ID: 
28301481

Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome

Rooryck C, Diaz-Font A, Osborn DP, Chabchoub E, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Shamseldin H, Kenny J, Waters A, Jenkins D, Kaissi AA, Leal GF, Dallapiccola B, Carnevale F, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Lees M, Hennekam R, Stanier P, Burns AJ, Peeters H, Alkuraya FS, Beales PL. Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Mar;43(3):197-203.

PubMed ID: 
21258343

Ayme-Gripp Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most patients have congenital cataracts which may be mild and "oil drop" in appearance.  The eyes appear far apart, the eyebrows are broad, and the palpebral fissures may slant upward or downward.  Ptosis has been reported.  Aphakic glaucoma has been reported in one juvenile who had unilateral cataract surgery at 5 months of age.

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is heterogeneous and not all patients have all features.  The facial features are said to resemble those of the Down syndrome with brachycephaly, a high forehead, and a flat midface with shallow orbits and malar hypoplasia.  The ears are small, low-set, and posteriorly rotated.  The nose is short and the nasal bridge is broad and flat.  The mouth is small and the upper lip is thin.  The scalp hair may be sparse and the nails sometimes appear dystrophic.

The fingers are sometimes brachydactylous and tapered.  Short stature is common and the joints may have limited motion.  Dislocation of the radial heads is seen rarely while radioulnar synostosis has been seen in a few individuals.  Postnatal short stature is common.

Seizures often occur.  The ventricles appear large and cerebral atrophy has been reported.  Intellectual disability and mental retardation are common. However, at least one individual attended university although he had been diagnosed in childhood with Asberger disease.   Neurosensory hearing loss is common.

Genetics

This autosomal dominant condition results from heterozygous mutations in the MAF (16q32.2) gene.  At least one mother/son transmission event has been reported.

Many of the same features are seen in what has been called the Fine-Lubinsky syndrome (601353) but without mutations in the MAF gene.  It may not be a unique disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported but specific anomalies such as cataracts should be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies

Niceta M, Stellacci E, Gripp KW, Zampino G, Kousi M, Anselmi M, Traversa A, Ciolfi A, Stabley D, Bruselles A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Prudente S, Fiorenza MT, Boitani C, Philip N, Niyazov D, Leoni C, Nakane T, Keppler-Noreuil K, Braddock SR, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Palleschi A, Campeau PM, Lee BH, Pouponnot C, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Katsanis N, Sol-Church K, Tartaglia M. Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 7;96(5):816-25.

PubMed ID: 
25865493

Retinitis Pigmentosa With or Without Skeletal Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Downward slanting lid fissures may be detectable at birth as part of the general craniofacial dysmorphism.  Some degree of night blindness causes symptoms by the second decade of life and constricted visual fields with pigmented retinopathy and vessel narrowing can be detected.  The ERG shows reduced or absent responses.  The retinal phenotype is progressive.   

Systemic Features: 

Most but not all patients have skeletal anomalies.  Nonspecific craniofacial dysmorphology features are frequently present including frontal bossing, macrocephaly, low-set ears, large columella, hypoplastic nares, and malar hypoplasia.  A short neck, brachydactyly, and overall shortness of stature are often present.  Some individuals have nail dysplasia.  The proximal femoral metaphyses sometimes show chondrodysplasia.

There is often some degree of intellectual disability and there may be delays in speech, feeding, and walking.

Genetics

This disorder results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the CWC27 gene (5q12.3).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported.  Low vision aids and night vision devices may be helpful, especially for educational activities.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies

Xu M, Xie YA, Abouzeid H, Gordon CT, Fiorentino A, Sun Z, Lehman A, Osman IS, Dharmat R, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Bapst-Wicht L, Babino D, Arno G, Busetto V, Zhao L, Li H, Lopez-Martinez MA, Azevedo LF, Hubert L, Pontikos N, Eblimit A, Lorda-Sanchez I, Kheir V, Plagnol V, Oufadem M, Soens ZT, Yang L, Bole-Feysot C, Pfundt R, Allaman-Pillet N, Nitschke P, Cheetham ME, Lyonnet S, Agrawal SA, Li H, Pinton G, Michaelides M, Besmond C, Li Y, Yuan Z, von Lintig J, Webster AR, Le Hir H, Stoilov P; UK Inherited Retinal Dystrophy Consortium., Amiel J, Hardcastle AJ, Ayuso C, Sui R, Chen R, Allikmets R, Schorderet DF. Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Apr 6;100(4):592-604.

PubMed ID: 
28285769

SHORT Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Deeply set eyes are frequently noted and perhaps are a result of the lipodystrophy.  Anterior segment abnormalities resembling Rieger anomalies are often associated with congenital glaucoma. 

Systemic Features: 

There is considerable clinical heterogeneity.  The facial gestalt, however, is said to be characteristic.  These are: triangular progeroid facies with a prominent forehead, absence of facial fat, midface hypoplasia, and hypoplastic nasal alae.  Insulin resistance seems to be a consistent feature as well and nephrocalcinosis is common.  Serum and urinary calcium may be elevated even in infancy.

Teeth are late to erupt and bone age is delayed with shortness of stature the final result in many cases.  Joints are often hyperextensible.  A neurosensory hear loss has been found in some individuals.  Notably, developmental milestones are usually timely although mild cognitive delays are rarely seen and speech may be delayed.  Inguinal hernias are part of the syndrome. 

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the PIK3R1 gene (5q31.1) are responsible for this syndrome.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Serum and urinary calcium should be monitored.  The risk of glaucoma is high and patients should be monitored and treated appropriately.  Blood sugar and insulin levels may require treatment.  Inguinal hernias may require surgical repair.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in PIK3R1 cause SHORT syndrome

Dyment DA, Smith AC, Alcantara D, Schwartzentruber JA, Basel-Vanagaite L, Curry CJ, Temple IK, Reardon W, Mansour S, Haq MR, Gilbert R, Lehmann OJ, Vanstone MR, Beaulieu CL; FORGE Canada Consortium., Majewski J, Bulman DE, O'Driscoll M, Boycott KM, Innes AM. Mutations in PIK3R1 cause SHORT syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Jul 11;93(1):158-66. 

PubMed ID: 
23810382

Muscular Dystrophy, Congenital, with Cataracts and Intellectual Disability

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cataracts have been diagnosed by 6 months of age and may be congenital in origin. Several patients have had strabismus.

Systemic Features: 

Progressive muscle weakness begins in early childhood.  Hypotonia is usually present at birth followed by atrophy of the proximal muscles (especially in the lower limbs).  Muscle weakness progresses for several years and may stabilize but not before severe gait difficulties occur.  Most adult patients are confined to a wheelchair.  No cardiac involvement occurs although respiratory weakness is often present.  Serum creatine kinase is usually elevated and biopsied muscle fibers show dystrophic changes and increased variability in fiber size with vacuolization.

Other signs in some individuals are contractures, scoliosis, seizures, short stature, cognitive deficits (usually mild), and spinal rigidity.  Paradoxically, some patients have limb spasticity and hyperreflexia with pyramidal signs.  No cerebellar signs are present.

Genetics

This condition results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the INPP5K gene (17p13).  

See Marinesco-Sjogren Syndrome for a disorder with a somewhat similar clinical presentation plus cerebellar signs.  It is caused by a different mutation, however.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cataracts have been surgically removed in several patients by the age of two years.  Physical therapy may be beneficial.  Selected individuals could benefit from release of contractures.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in INPP5K, Encoding a Phosphoinositide 5-Phosphatase, Cause Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Cataracts and Mild Cognitive Impairment

Wiessner M, Roos A, Munn CJ, Viswanathan R, Whyte T, Cox D, Schoser B, Sewry C, Roper H, Phadke R, Marini Bettolo C, Barresi R, Charlton R, Bonnemann CG, Abath Neto O, Reed UC, Zanoteli E, Araujo Martins Moreno C, Ertl-Wagner B, Stucka R, De Goede C, Borges da Silva T, Hathazi D, Dell'Aica M, Zahedi RP, Thiele S, Muller J, Kingston H, Muller S, Curtis E, Walter MC, Strom TM, Straub V, Bushby K, Muntoni F, Swan LE, Lochmuller H, Senderek J. Mutations in INPP5K, Encoding a Phosphoinositide 5-Phosphatase, Cause Congenital Muscular Dystrophy with Cataracts and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Mar 2;100(3):523-536.

PubMed ID: 
28190456

Mutations in INPP5K Cause a Form of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Overlapping Marinesco-Sjögren Syndrome and Dystroglycanopathy

Osborn DP, Pond HL, Mazaheri N, Dejardin J, Munn CJ, Mushref K, Cauley ES, Moroni I, Pasanisi MB, Sellars EA, Hill RS, Partlow JN, Willaert RK, Bharj J, Malamiri RA, Galehdari H, Shariati G, Maroofian R, Mora M, Swan LE, Voit T, Conti FJ, Jamshidi Y, Manzini MC. Mutations in INPP5K Cause a Form of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Overlapping Marinesco-Sjogren Syndrome and Dystroglycanopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Mar 2;100(3):537-545.

PubMed ID: 
28190459

Cataracts, Congenital, With Short Stature and Minor Skeletal Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Early-onset cataracts are the main ocular feature of this syndrome.  A nonconsanguineous Korean family with 4 affected individuals has been reported.  Cataracts were diagnosed at various ages, including one adult, one juvenile, and one infant.  All had horizontal nystagmus and reduced vision even after surgical removal of the lenses.  

Systemic Features: 

Macrocephaly and short stature are consistent features.  Brachydactyly of the fingers is usually present.  The feet are described as "flat" and contain accessory navicular bones.

Genetics

A 3 generation Korean family with 4 affected members has been reported.  Three living members and a deceased grandfather had cataracts in an autosomal dominant pattern.  A mutation in the BRD4 gene (19p12.12) mutation segregated with the cataract phenotype.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Surgical removal of the cataractous lenses may be helpful in selected individuals but amblyopia is likely present as postoperative vision may remain below normal.

References
Article Title: 

Intellectual Disability with Dysmorphic Facies and Ptosis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes appear widely spaced and the lid fissures slant downward.  Ptosis and blepharophimosis are present.  Strabismus is an uncommon feature.

Systemic Features: 

The characteristic facial profile (round, flat) is evident at birth. Microcephaly has been seen in some children.  Low birthweight is common.  Most infants feed poorly with general growth delay and short stature becoming evident in childhood.  Hypotonia and joint hypermobility are constant features.  Gross and fine motor movements appear uncoordinated.  Expressive language is delayed and impaired.  Intellectual disability is mild and achievement of developmental milestones may be delayed.  Seizures are seen in about half of affected individuals.  Brain MRIs may reveal mild white matter anomalies.  Spinal fusion among cervical vertebrae is common.

Individuals may live to adulthood.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the BRPF1 gene (3p25) are responsible for this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in Histone Acetylase Modifier BRPF1 Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Form of Intellectual Disability with Associated Ptosis

Mattioli F, Schaefer E, Magee A, Mark P, Mancini GM, Dieterich K, Von Allmen G, Alders M, Coutton C, van Slegtenhorst M, Vieville G, Engelen M, Cobben JM, Juusola J, Pujol A, Mandel JL, Piton A. Mutations in Histone Acetylase Modifier BRPF1 Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Form of Intellectual Disability with Associated Ptosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jan 5;100(1):105-116.

PubMed ID: 
27939639

Mutations in the Chromatin Regulator Gene BRPF1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Deficient Histone Acetylation

Yan K, Rousseau J, Littlejohn RO, Kiss C, Lehman A, Rosenfeld JA, Stumpel CT, Stegmann AP, Robak L, Scaglia F, Nguyen TT, Fu H, Ajeawung NF, Camurri MV, Li L, Gardham A, Panis B, Almannai M, Sacoto MJ, Baskin B, Ruivenkamp C, Xia F, Bi W; DDD Study.; CAUSES Study., Cho MT, Potjer TP, Santen GW, Parker MJ, Canham N, McKinnon M, Potocki L, MacKenzie JJ, Roeder ER, Campeau PM, Yang XJ. Mutations in the Chromatin Regulator Gene BRPF1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Deficient Histone Acetylation. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jan 5;100(1):91-104.

PubMed ID: 
27939640

Optic Atrophy 11

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is seen as early as 5 years of age but may be congenital in origin as hypoplasia of the optic nerve was present in all patients.  Three of 4 affected children also were myopic.

Systemic Features: 

This is a form of mitochondriopathy with considerable clinical heterogeneity.  A single consanguineous family with 4 affected children of ages 5-16 years of age has been reported.

Common features include short stature, microcephaly (1 had macrocephaly), hearing impairment. Ataxia, dysmetria, and athetotic movements may be present.  Motor and mental development are delayed as is expressive speech.  Intellectual disability is present in all 4 patients.  Leukoencephalopathy was seen in all patients and one had brain atrophy.  Cerebellar hypoplasia was present in 2 of four patients.

Muscle mitochondria in one patient had morphologic changes.  Lactate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in the blood and CSF fluid of three patients.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the YME1L1 gene (10p12.1) were responsible for this condition in 4 offspring of a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family.   This is a nuclear encoded mitochondrial gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.Hom

References
Article Title: 

ZTTK Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes are deep-set and the palpebral fissures slant downward.  Optic atrophy is often present.  The majority of individuals have poor visual responses which may also be attributed to central or cortical impairment.  Strabismus and nystagmus are frequently present.

Systemic Features: 

ZTTK syndrome is multisystem malformation and developmental disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation.  The facial features might suggest the diagnosis at birth but most of the signs are nonspecific including frontal bossing, underdevelopment of the midface, facial asymmetry, low-set ears, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, and a short philtrum.  Poor feeding and hypotonia in the neonatal period are usually present and physical growth is subnormal resulting in short stature.

Brain imaging may show abnormal gyral patterns, ventriculomegaly, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, arachnoid cysts, and loss of periventricular white matter.  About half of patients develop seizures and many have intellectual disabilities.  Spinal anomalies include hemivertebrae with scoliosis and/or kyphosis.  Other skeletal features include joint laxity in some patients and contractures in others.  Arachnodactyly, craniosynostosis, and rib anomalies have been reported.  There may be malformations in the GI, GU, and cardiac systems while immune and coagulation abnormalities have also been reported.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the SON gene (21q22.11) have been identified in patients with this condition.  They may cause truncation of the gene product with haploinsufficiency or, in other patients, a frameshift in the reading.  The SON gene is a master RNA splicing regulator that impacts neurodevelopment.

Virtually all cases are the result of de novo mutations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.  Physical therapy and assistive devices may be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive

Tokita MJ, Braxton AA, Shao Y, Lewis AM, Vincent M, Kury S, Besnard T, Isidor B, Latypova X, Bezieau S, Liu P, Motter CS, Melver CW, Robin NH, Infante EM, McGuire M, El-Gharbawy A, Littlejohn RO, McLean SD, Bi W, Bacino CA, Lalani SR, Scott DA, Eng CM, Yang Y, Schaaf CP, Walkiewicz MA. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):720-7.

PubMed ID: 
27545676

De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome

Kim JH, Shinde DN, Reijnders MR, Hauser NS, Belmonte RL, Wilson GR, Bosch DG, Bubulya PA, Shashi V, Petrovski S, Stone JK, Park EY, Veltman JA, Sinnema M, Stumpel CT, Draaisma JM, Nicolai J; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Yntema HG, Lindstrom K, de Vries BB, Jewett T, Santoro SL, Vogt J; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, Bachman KK, Seeley AH, Krokosky A, Turner C, Rohena L, Hempel M, Kortum F, Lessel D, Neu A, Strom TM, Wieczorek D, Bramswig N, Laccone FA, Behunova J, Rehder H, Gordon CT, Rio M, Romana S, Tang S, El-Khechen D, Cho MT, McWalter K, Douglas G, Baskin B, Begtrup A, Funari T, Schoch K, Stegmann AP, Stevens SJ, Zhang DE, Traver D, Yao X, MacArthur DG, Brunner HG, Mancini GM, Myers RM, Owen LB, Lim ST, Stachura DL, Vissers LE, Ahn EY. De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):711-9.

PubMed ID: 
27545680

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