short stature

Gurrieri Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Tapetoretinal degeneration has been described in several patients.  Some patients have keratoconus with lens and corneal opacities.  Visual acuities have not been reported.  The full ocular phenotype must be considered unknown since most patients have not had full ophthalmic evaluations.

Systemic Features: 

Features of an osteodysplasia are among the most striking in this syndrome.  Short stature, brachydactyly, delayed bone age, osteoporosis, and hypoplasia of the acetabulae and iliac alae are usually present.  Birth weight is often low.  Joints may be hyperflexible as part of the generalized hypotonia. The eyes are deep-set, the nasal bridge is prominent, the midface is flat, and the supraorbital ridges are prominent giving the face a rather coarse look.  Prognathism with a prominent lower lip and dental malocclusion reinforce this appearance.  Seizures beginning in early childhood may be difficult to control.  Most patients have severe psychomotor retardation and never acquire speech.

Genetics

The genetics of this familial disorder remain unknown.  No locus or mutation has been identified but one patient had an absent maternal allele of the proximal 15q region as found in Angelman syndrome.

Orofaciodigital syndrome IX (258865) is another autosomal recessive syndrome sometimes called Gurrieri syndrome.  In Gurrieri’s original description of two brothers, chorioretinal lacunae, similar to those seen in Aicardi syndrome (304050), were present.  The systemic features are dissimilar, however.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Mowat-Wilson Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most reports of Mowat-Wilson disorders provide only incomplete ocular findings and the full phenotype remains to be described.  Most of the reported findings are part of the facial phenotype, such as downward slanting palpebral fissures, and ‘wedge-shaped’ eyebrows with the medial portion visibly wider than the temporal region.  Hypertelorism, strabismus and telecanthus have also been noted.  However, optic nerve atrophyor aplasia, RPE atrophy, microphthalmia, ptosis, and cataracts are sometimes present while strabismus is more common.  Iris and other uveal colobomas may be present and at least one patient has been reported with retinal aplasia.  There may be considerable asymmetry in the features among the two eyes.

Systemic Features: 

This is a highly complex dysmorphic developmental disorder with unusual progression of facial features.  Birth weight and length are usually normal but later there is general somatic and mental growth delay with microcephaly (pre- and post natal), short stature, intellectual disability, and epilepsy (70%).  Hypotonia has been noted at birth.  A significant proportion (~50%) of patients have Hirschsprung disease with megacolon.  Congenital heart defects are common, many involving septal openings.  Hypospadias is often present with or without other genitourinary anomalies.  Teeth are often crowded and crooked.  The earlobes may be flattened and may have a central depression.

The facial features are present in early childhood but as they mature the upper half of the nasal profile becomes convex, while the nasal tip becomes longer and overhangs the philtrum.  The eyes appear more deeply set.  The chin lengthens and prognathism becomes apparent.  IQ levels cannot be determined but many individuals exhibit behavioral or emotional disturbances.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in ZEB2 (2q22.3) are responsible for most cases (81%) of this disorder.  A large number of molecular mutations, many of the nonsense type, have been reported. About 2-4% of patients have cytogenetic alterations involving the 2q22 region.

Another disorder with microcephaly, intellectual disability and Hirschsprung disease is Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (609460) with mutations in the KIAA1279 gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment may be directed at specific defects but there is no treatment for the general disorder. Individuals can live to adulthood. Treatment is largely symptomatic.  Physical and speech treatment can be helpful if initiated early.

References
Article Title: 

Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Bourchany A, Giurgea I, Thevenon J, Goldenberg A, Morin G, Bremond-Gignac D, Paillot C, Lafontaine PO, Thouvenin D, Massy J, Duncombe A, Thauvin-Robinet C, Masurel-Paulet A, Chehadeh SE, Huet F, Bron A, Creuzot-Garcher C, Lyonnet S, Faivre L. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 
25899569

The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Evans E, Einfeld S, Mowat D, Taffe J, Tonge B, Wilson M. The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Feb;158A(2):358-66. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34405.

PubMed ID: 
22246645

Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature

Garavelli L, Zollino M, Mainardi PC, Gurrieri F, Rivieri F, Soli F, Verri R, Albertini E, Favaron E, Zignani M, Orteschi D, Bianchi P, Faravelli F, Forzano F, Seri M, Wischmeijer A, Turchetti D, Pompilii E, Gnoli M, Cocchi G, Mazzanti L, Bergamaschi R, De Brasi D, Sperandeo MP, Mari F, Uliana V, Mostardini R, Cecconi M, Grasso M, Sassi S, Sebastio G, Renieri A, Silengo M, Bernasconi S, Wakamatsu N, Neri G. Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):417-26. Review.

PubMed ID: 
19215041

Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Zweier C, Thiel CT, Dufke A, Crow YJ, Meinecke P, Suri M, Ala-Mello S, Beemer F, Bernasconi S, Bianchi P, Bier A, Devriendt K, Dimitrov B, Firth H, Gallagher RC, Garavelli L, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Hudgins L, K?SS?SSri?SSinen H, Karstens S, Krantz I, Mannhardt A, Medne L, M?ocke J, Kibaek M, Krogh LN, Peippo M, Rittinger O, Schulz S, Schelley SL, Temple IK, Dennis NR, Van der Knaap MS, Wheeler P, Yerushalmi B, Zenker M, Seidel H, Lachmeijer A, Prescott T, Kraus C, Lowry RB, Rauch A. Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Eur J Med Genet. 2005 Apr-Jun;48(2):97-111

PubMed ID: 
16053902

CHARGE Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Both ocular and systemic abnormalities are highly variable, even within families.  Among the most common ocular features are unilateral or bilateral ocular colobomas (80%).  These involve the iris most frequently but they may extend into the posterior chamber and rarely involve the optic nerve.  A significant number of patients with uveal colobomas have an associated microphthalmia.  The lid fissures often slant downward.  A few patients have congenital cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, persistent hyperplastic vitreous, and strabismus.

Systemic Features: 

A wide variety of systemic anomalies have been reported.  Congenital heart defects (primarily septal) and CNS malformations are among the most common features, reported in 85% and 55% respectively.  Tetralogy of Fallot is considered by some to be the most common heart malformation.  Growth and mental retardation are found in nearly 100%.  The pinnae are often set low and hearing loss is common.  Ear anomalies, both internal and external, have been described in 91%, and some degree of conduction and/or sensorineural deafness is present in 62%.  Choanal atresia is found in at least 57% of patients.  This along with cleft palate and sometimes esophageal atresia or reflux often contributes to feeding difficulties which are common in all age groups.  Cranial nerve deficits are seen in 92% of patients and more than one nerve is involved in nearly 3 of 4 patients.  The most common cranial nerve defects involve numbers IX, X, VIII, and V.  Facial palsies are an especially important feature. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and underdevelopment of the external genitalia are often seen, especially in males.  One-third of patients have limb anomalies and many have short digits.  The facies is considered by some as characteristic with a square configuration, broad forehead, flat midface, and a broad nasal bridge.

Infant and childhood morbidity is high with feeding difficulties a major cause of death.

Genetics

Many cases occur sporadically but family patterns consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance are common as well.  Advanced paternal age may be a factor in de novo cases.  Sequence variants of multiple types have been reported in the CHD7 gene (8q12.1-q12.2) in more than 90% of familial patients.  The gene product is a DNA –binding protein that impacts transcription regulation via chromatin remodeling.

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia) has been considered to be allelic to CHARGE syndrome but may be the same disorder since mutations in CHD7 are responsible and many patients have other features characteristic of the syndrome described here.

Several patients with classical features of the CHARGE syndrome and de novo mutations in the SEMA3E gene (7q21.11) have also been described.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is lesion dependent but focused on airway, feeding, and cardiac defects at least initially.  Regular ophthalmologic and audiologic evaluations are recommended beginning in infancy.  Evidence for hypogonadism should be evaluated if puberty is delayed.  Nutrition must be monitored especially in those with serious feeding problems.  Hearing devices, with speech, occupational, and education therapy may be required.

References
Article Title: 

Coloboma, Ptosis, Hypertelorism, and Global Delay

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular phenotype includes ptosis, hypertelorism, iris coloboma and prominent epicanthal folds with epicanthus inversus.  The coloboma may be unilateral and involve other portions of the uveal tract. The orbits have been described as shallow.  At least one patient has been described as having microphthalmia and microcornea.

Systemic Features: 

The systemic features reported include severe global delay, a broad nasal bridge, and short stature.  Physical growth delay, mental retardation, short neck, low-set ears, and low posterior hairline have been noted.  Males may have a micropenis and undescended testicles.  The pinnae may be malformed and rotated posteriorly. Several patients had a hearing deficit.

CT scans have shown microcephaly with pachygyria and or even virtual agyria of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes.

Genetics

This condition is caused by heterozygous mutations in the ACTG1 gene (17q25.3) and therefore transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern.  Sibs but no parental consanguinity has been reported.  Both sexes are affected.

Mutations in the same gene are responsible for a somewhat similar condition known as Baraister-Winter 2 syndrome (614583).

Temtamy syndrome (218340) has some similar features but is caused by mutations in C12orf57 (12p13).  In addition to microphthalmia and colobomas, intractable seizures, global delay and abnormalities of the corpus callosum are present.

Several patients that may have had this syndrome have had pericentric inversions of chromosome 2: inv(2)(p12q14).  The PAX8 gene maps to the distal breakpoint of this inversion and may play a role as the location of a recessive mutation or as part of a submicroscopic inversion.  No parent-child transmission has been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 in two siblings with severe intellectual disability, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal coloboma, and intractable seizures

Platzer K, Huning I, Obieglo C, Schwarzmayr T, Gabriel R, Strom TM, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Kaiser FJ. Exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 in two siblings with severe intellectual disability, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal coloboma, and intractable seizures. Am J Med Genet A. 2014 May 5. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24798461

Weill-Marchesani-Like Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Several families have been reported in which the ocular features were similar to Weill-Marchesani syndromes WMS1 and WMS2 but lacked most of the skeletal features.  The ocular abnormalities included: myopia, ectopia lentis, spherophakia, and glaucoma.  Shallow anterior chambers and peripheral iris synechiae are often present. Axial length ranges from 21 to 23 mm.

Systemic Features: 

Short stature is a feature of this syndrome but brachydactyly and decreased joint mobility are not present.  Height is usually below the 25th percentile and often at the third or 5th percentile.

 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in ADAMTS17 (15q26.3).  See also Weill-Marchesani Syndrome 1 (277600), and Weill-Marchesani Syndrome 2 (608328) for other conditions with clinical similarities but caused by different mutations.

Homozygous mutations in LTBP2 (14q24.3) have also been found in this disorder and in WMS1 (277600).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Glaucoma requires the usual treatments.  The lens may need to be removed for visual rehabilitation and/or lens induced glaucoma.

References
Article Title: 

LTBP2 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani and Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and affect disruptions in the extracellular matrix

Haji-Seyed-Javadi R, Jelodari-Mamaghani S, Paylakhi SH, Yazdani S, Nilforushan N, Fan JB, Klotzle B, Mahmoudi MJ, Ebrahimian MJ, Chelich N, Taghiabadi E, Kamyab K, Boileau C, Paisan-Ruiz C, Ronaghi M, Elahi E. LTBP2 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani and Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and affect disruptions in the extracellular matrix. Hum Mutat. 2012 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/humu.22105. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22539340.

PubMed ID: 
22539340

KID Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Superficial punctate keratopathy leads to recurrent corneal erosions and eventually scarring and neovascularization.  Progressive opacification requiring PK often occurs.  These individuals may also suffer loss of eyebrows and eyelashes with trichiasis and thickening of the lid margins.  Corneal erosions and keratoconjunctivitis sicca cause incapacitating symptoms.

Systemic Features: 

The skin may be diffusely erythematous and scaly.  This often becomes patchier with well-demarcated areas especially in skin folds of the neck, axillae, and groin.  Older patients with likely autosomal recessive disease have hepatomegaly and may suffer cirrhosis and liver failure.  Short stature and mental retardation have also been noted.  The hearing loss is neurosensory in type.  Epidermal glycogen deposition has been found in one patient with the presumed recessive disorder.

In the presumed autosomal dominant disease, growth failure, mental retardation and liver disease do not seem to be present.  However, oral and skin squamous cell carcinomas, as well as malignant pilar tumors of the scalp may lead to early death.

Genetics

It is uncertain if one or more entities are represented by the KID syndrome.  Many cases are sporadic but others seem to be transmitted in autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant patterns.  The locus of the mutation is unknown in the recessive form.  In the dominant form, a mutation has been found in the connexin-26 gene, GJB2, gene located at 13q12.11.

See Hereditary Mucoepithelial Dysplasia (158310) for a somewhat similar but unique genodermatosis.  Another is IFAP (308205) but cataracts and hearing loss are not features.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The use of ocular lubricating preparation may supply significant relief from symptoms but scarring may eventually necessitate penetrating keratoplasty.  The threat of skin cancers and fatal hepatic failure requires monitoring throughout life.

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 7

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Microphthalmia and rarely clinical anophthalmia are the ocular hallmarks of this disorder.  Corneal leukomas and some degree of sclerocornea are usually present as well.  Orbital cysts have been observed.  Other less consistent findings include iridocorneal adhesions, glaucoma, microcornea, cataracts, aniridia, persistence of the anterior hyaloid artery and other vitreous opacities, and patchy hypopigmentation of the RPE.

Systemic Features: 

The skin on the nose, cheeks and neck has linear red rashes and scar-like lesions.  Biopsy of these has revealed smooth muscle hemartomata rather than simple dermal aplasia.  There may be some healing of the skin defects.  The corpus callosum is sometimes absent.  Diaphragmatic hernias are often present.  Cardiac abnormalities include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, and septal defects.   Preauricular pits and hearing loss have been found in some patients.  Patients may be short in stature and some have nail dysplasia.  GU and GI anomalies may be present.

Genetics

This is an X-linked dominant disorder with lethality in the hemizygous male.  Many patients (79%) have interstitial deletions of the Xp22.2 region of the X chromosome.  Sequence analysis of this region has revealed heterozygous point mutations in the HCCS gene (Xp22.2) in numerous other patients.  In several additional cases deleterious mutations have been found in the X-linked COX7B gene.  However, familial occurrence is uncommon.  X chromosome inactivation may be skewed with the abnormal X being inactive in virtually all cases. Several 46 XX males with this syndrome have been described.

Goltz syndrome (305600), also called focal dermal hypoplasia, may have similar skin and ocular findings but the limb anomalies are not found in the disorder described here.  Goltz syndrome (305600) is the result of mutations in PORCN at another locus on the X chromosome and is thus unrelated.

Other X-linked dominant disorders with lethality in hemizygous males and abnormalities in skin and the eye are Incontinentia pigmenti (308300) and Aicardi syndrome (304050).  The skin lesions and ocular anomalies are dissimilar to those in MLS and they often have far more severe CNS abnormalities.   Further, the mutation causing Aicardi is in the NEMO (IKBKG) gene at another location on the X chromosome.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is organ-specific with repair of septal defects and diaphragmatic hernias.  Progressive orbital prosthetics should be considered in patients with blind, microphthalmic and clinically anophthalmic eyes.

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome in a mosaic female infant with monosomy for the Xp22 region: molecular analysis of the Xp22 breakpoint and the X-inactivation pattern

Ogata T, Wakui K, Muroya K, Ohashi H, Matsuo N, Brown DM, Ishii T, Fukushima Y. Microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome in a mosaic female infant with monosomy for the Xp22 region: molecular analysis of the Xp22 breakpoint and the X-inactivation pattern. Hum Genet. 1998 Jul;103(1):51-6. Review.

PubMed ID: 
9737776

Stickler Syndrome, Type IV

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Evidence of vitreoretinal degeneration is common and the risk of retinal detachment is high.  High myopia is common.  Cataracts are not a feature in contrast to types I and II Stickler syndrome.

It is likely that the ocular phenotype will be expanded with the report of additional families.

Systemic Features: 

Sensorineural hearing loss and short stature are often present. The latter is not usually a feature in other types of Stickler syndrome.  However, midface hypoplasia and micrognathia may be present in all types as well as in Marshall syndrome.  Midline clefting usually does not occur.

Genetics

A reported pedigree suggests autosomal recessive inheritance based on parental consanguinity and the lack of parent-to-child transmission.  Affected individuals have homozygous deletion mutations leading to loss of function in COL9A2 (1p33-p32) while parents are heterozygous.  A family with mutations in COL9A1 (6q12-q14), usually causing multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, has been reported to have autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome as well.  Homozygous individuals had typical ocular and auditory findings of autosomal dominant Stickler syndrome but with evidence of epiphyseal dysplasia.

Type I Stickler syndrome (108300, 609508) is an autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat similar ocular manifestations resulting from mutations in COL2A1.

Type II Stickler syndrome (604841) with a somewhat similar ocular phenotype is also an autosomal dominant disorder but caused by mutations in COL11A1.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The myopia and hearing loss can be corrected.  Lifelong vigilance and prompt treatment are required for the vitreoretinal disease.

References
Article Title: 

MELAS Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This progressive mitochondrial disorder primarily affects muscles and the CNS, including the visual system.  The pattern of ocular deficits is not consistent and those that are present are not specific, requiring the clinician to take the entire neurological picture into consideration.  Hemianopsia, cortical blindness and ophthalmoplegia may be present.  The ERG can show reduced b-wave amplitudes and VEPs may be absent.  The optic nerve head has been described as normal without the atrophy often seen with other mitochondrial disorders.  A pigmentary retinopathy may be present.

Systemic Features: 

The clinical picture is highly variable.  Most commonly patients have myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes.  The onset of symptoms is usually in the first two decades of life, most commonly consisting of headaches of sudden onset accompanied by vomiting and seizures.  The headaches may simulate migraines.  Weakness, lethargy, and apathy may be present early.  However, infants and young children may present with failure to thrive, developmental delay, and learning disabilities.  Neurosensory deafness is often seen and peripheral neuropathy is usually evident.  MRIs may show cerebellar hypoplasia and infarctions in the cerebral hemispheres.  Some patients have calcifications in the basal ganglia.  Patients may develop lactic acidosis.  Muscle biopsies often show ragged, red fibers.  The heart is commonly involved with both structural and rhythm defects.  Depending upon the degree and location of brain damage, patients may have hemiparesis, lethargy, ataxia, myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and dementia.  Morbidity and mortality are high.

Genetics

MELAS syndrome is a group of disorders caused by mutations in mitochondrial genes (at least 9 have been identified) that alter transfer RNA molecules resulting in disruption of intramitochondrial synthesis of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathways.  It is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous.  One can expect that any familial occurrence would result from maternal transmission but the occurrence of heteroplasmy results in considerable variability in the severity of clinical disease.

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no effective treatment that prevents development of disease or that slows its progress.

References
Article Title: 

Cataracts, Ataxia, Short Stature, and Mental Retardation

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cataracts are present in both sexes but the opacification is more extensive in males and only partial in females.  The cataracts are congenital in males but apparently develop later in females who complain of blurred vision from early childhood or during teenage years.  The lenses in females have punctate and pulverulent opacities as well as posterior subcapsular sclerosis.  Vision has been estimated as hand motion from early childhood in boys and about 20/40 in females in the first two decades of life.

Systemic Features: 

Males have mild to moderate mental retardation, muscle hypotonia and weakness with postural tremor.  Their standing position is broad-based and they are unable to sit or stand otherwise without some support.  They are usually unable to walk unassisted.  Speech is dysarthric and its development is delayed.  Females are neurologically normal.

Genetics

A locus containing the disease allele at Xpter-q13.1 cosegregates with the cataract phenotype in both sexes.  The gene mutation has not been identified.  This can be called an X-linked recessive disorder with partial expression in heterozygous females.

Pedigree: 
X-linked recessive, carrier mother
X-linked recessive, father affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cataract surgery may be indicated in young females and may be beneficial in infant boys.

References
Article Title: 

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - short stature