autosomal recessive

Palmoplantar Keratoderma and Woolly Hair

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Eyebrows and eyelashes are sparse.

Systemic Features: 

Striate palmoplantar keratoderma, more pronounced in the soles, with leukonychia are present.  Scalp and body hair are sparse.  Woolly hair is present in some patients.  The toes may be somewhat rotated with a bulbous appearance distally.  Older individuals have more marked skin changes suggesting some progression.

Genetics

This autosomal recessive condition is the result of homozygous missense mutations in the KANK2 gene (19p13.2).  Eight patients in two families of Arab descent have been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Cataracts, Growth Hormone Deficiency, and Skeletal Dysplasia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Lens opacities can be seen in infancy or childhood and may be congenital in onset.  Nystagmus has been noted in one patient. 

Systemic Features: 

There is considerable clinical heterogeneity in the phenotype.  Motor milestones may be slightly delayed.  Dysmorphic features in at least some individuals include bushy eyebrows, a prominent forehead, and a small mouth.  Thoracic scoliosis and genu valgum may be present.  Physical growth is reduced during infancy and childhood resulting in a short stature in adulthood.  Growth hormone and cortisol deficiency have been documented. Episodic hypoglycemia has been documented. The pituitary adenohypophysis appears atrophied on MRI.

Neurosensory hearing loss has been diagnosed in the first two years of life.  A distal sensory neuropathy with loss of pain, temperature and touch sensation may be present late in the first decade of life.  There are no cognitive deficits and patients can live independently.

Genetics

This is likely an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the IARS2 gene (1q41).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Appropriate hormonal replacement therapy can be beneficial.  Individual skeletal surgery for scoliosis and hip dislocation should be considered.  Visually significant lens opacities may require surgery.

References
Article Title: 

Mutation in The Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase IARS2 in Patients with Cataracts, Growth Hormone Deficiency with Short Stature, Partial Sensorineural Deafness, and Peripheral Neuropathy or with Leigh Syndrome

Schwartzentruber J, Buhas D, Majewski J, Sasarman F, Papillon-Cavanagh S, Thiffaut I, Sheldon KM, Massicotte C, Patry L, Simon M, Zare AS, McKernan KJ; FORGE Canada Consortium, Michaud J, Boles RG, Deal CL, Desilets V, Shoubridge EA, Samuels ME. Mutation in The Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Isoleucyl-tRNA Synthetase IARS2 in Patients with Cataracts, Growth Hormone Deficiency with Short Stature, Partial Sensorineural Deafness, and Peripheral Neuropathy or with Leigh Syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2014 Nov;35(11):1285-9.

PubMed ID: 
25130867

Cataracts, Congenital, with Intellectual Disability

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reported patients have bilateral posterior polar lens opacification, presumably present since birth.  No other ocular abnormalities are present.  Vision is stated to be normal following early cataract extractions.  No glaucoma has been detected while spectral OCT and electrophysiological studies had normal results.

Systemic Features: 

Psychomotor disabilities and developmental delays are present.  Walking does not occur until the age of about 2 years and speech is present by 5 years.  No dysmorphic features or other organ disease are present.  MRI studies of the brain are normal.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from homozygous mutations in the STX3 gene (11q12.1).  It has been reported in three children in a consanguineous Tunisian family.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Surgical removal of the cataracts should be considered when visually significant.  Special education might be helpful as learning difficulties have been noted.

References
Article Title: 

Pigmentary Retinopathy with Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular phenotype has not been fully described, but several patients with a pigmentary retinopathy resembling retinitis pigmentosa have been reported.

Systemic Features: 

Patients present at a median age of two months with typically severe microcytic sideroblastic anemia. Median hemoglobin levels are 7.1 g/dl.  Lymphopenia and panhypogammaglobulinemia are usually present and many children have periodic febrile illnesses.  The number of CD19+ B cells is reduced.  Aminoaciduria, hypercalcinuria, and nephrocalcinosis have been observed.  Cardiomyopathy has been seen in several patients and may be responsible for the early demise.  Developmental delays may be severe with variable neurodegeneration features such as seizures, cerebellar symptoms, and sensorineural hearing loss.  Achievement of milestones is generally delayed.  Median survival is 4 years although one patient has lived to the age of 19 years.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in TRNT1 (3p25.1) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in one patient reversed the hematologic and immunologic anomalies although retinitis subsequently developed.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

Chakraborty PK, Schmitz-Abe K, Kennedy EK, Mamady H, Naas T, Durie D, Campagna DR, Lau A, Sendamarai AK, Wiseman DH, May A, Jolles S, Connor P, Powell C, Heeney MM, Giardina PJ, Klaassen RJ, Kannengiesser C, Thuret I, Thompson AA, Marques L, Hughes S, Bonney DK, Bottomley SS, Wynn RF, Laxer RM, Minniti CP, Moppett J, Bordon V, Geraghty M, Joyce PB, Markianos K, Rudner AD, Holcik M, Fleming MD. Mutations in TRNT1 cause congenital sideroblastic anemia with immunodeficiency, fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Blood. 2014 Oct 30;124(18):2867-71.

PubMed ID: 
25193871

A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

Wiseman DH, May A, Jolles S, Connor P, Powell C, Heeney MM, Giardina PJ, Klaassen RJ, Chakraborty P, Geraghty MT, Major-Cook N, Kannengiesser C, Thuret I, Thompson AA, Marques L, Hughes S, Bonney DK, Bottomley SS, Fleming MD, Wynn RF. A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD). Blood. 2013 Jul 4;122(1):112-23.

PubMed ID: 
23553769

Neu-Laxova Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes appear prominent, an effect that is sometimes exaggerated by absent or malformed eyelids.

Systemic Features: 

Intrauterine growth retardation is common and infants are born with significant deformities including microcephaly, limb malformations, flexion deformities, ichthyosis, and edema of the hands and feet.   Brain malformations may be present as well.

Genetics

This disorder has a transmission pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.  Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PSAT1 gene (9q21.2) are responsible. 

This condition has similar features to Neu-Laxova syndrome 1 (256520) but is less severe and results from a different mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway

Acuna-Hidalgo R, Schanze D, Kariminejad A, Nordgren A, Kariminejad MH, Conner P, Grigelioniene G, Nilsson D, Nordenskjold M, Wedell A, Freyer C, Wredenberg A, Wieczorek D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Kayserili H, Elcioglu N, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Goodarzi P, Setayesh H, van de Vorst M, Steehouwer M, Pfundt R, Krabichler B, Curry C, MacKenzie MG, Boycott KM, Gilissen C, Janecke AR, Hoischen A, Zenker M. Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Sep 4;95(3):285-93.

PubMed ID: 
25152457

Neu-Laxova Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The globes are prominent, an appearance that is exaggerated sometimes by absence of the eyelids or ectropion.  The lashes may be absent in other patients.  Cloudy corneas and cataracts have been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a lethal dysplasia-malformation syndrome in which some infants are stillborn while others do not live beyond a few days.  The placenta is often small and the umbilical cord is short.  Decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios are often noted.  Microcephaly can be striking at birth but there is overall intrauterine growth retardation.  The skin is ichthyotic and dysplastic containing excess fatty tissue beneath the epidermis.  Digits are often small and may be fused (syndactyly).  There is generalized edema with ‘puffiness’ of the hands and feet.  The lungs are frequently underdeveloped and cardiac defects such as septal openings, patent ductus arteriosus and transposition of great vessels are common.  Males often have cryptorchidism while females have a bifid uterus and renal dysgenesis has been reported.

The face is dysmorphic with prominent globes (in spite of microphthalmia), the ears are large and malformed, the forehead is sloping, the nose is flattened and the jaw is small.  Some infants have a cleft lip and palate while the mouth is round and gaping.  The neck is usually short.

Severe brain malformations such as lissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and dysgenesis/agenesis of the corpus callosum are frequently present.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to mutations in the PHGDH gene (1p12).

This condition has some clinical overlap with Neu-Laxova syndrome 2 (616038) but the latter is less severe and is caused by a different mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway

Acuna-Hidalgo R, Schanze D, Kariminejad A, Nordgren A, Kariminejad MH, Conner P, Grigelioniene G, Nilsson D, Nordenskjold M, Wedell A, Freyer C, Wredenberg A, Wieczorek D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Kayserili H, Elcioglu N, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Goodarzi P, Setayesh H, van de Vorst M, Steehouwer M, Pfundt R, Krabichler B, Curry C, MacKenzie MG, Boycott KM, Gilissen C, Janecke AR, Hoischen A, Zenker M. Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Sep 4;95(3):285-93.

PubMed ID: 
25152457

Cerebral Atrophy, Autosomal Recessive

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Severe visual impairment is noted before one year of age when infants cease following objects in their environment.  Cortical visual impairment has been diagnosed although 'atrophic optic fundi' and hypotrophic optic nerves and fovea have also been described.  Nystagmus has been observed as well.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly relative to age norms is evident usually by 2 months of age and there is little subsequent growth of the skull.  Regression of developmental milestones is noted by 4 months of age with signs of irritability, akathisia, spasticity, visual impairment, seizures, and increased startle responses.  Sucking responses and eye-to-eye contact are usually lost by 6 months of age.  Repetitive body stiffening and extension of arms in older individuals consistent with seizure activity has been confirmed by EEG in at least one infant.  Imaging consistently reveals cerebral atrophy with ventriculomegaly and general loss of brain volume. Progressive muscle weakness is evident after about 1 year of age and oral feeding is impaired. There is complete lack of responsive interaction beyond irritability and agitation while motor function is limited to involuntary responses.  Two individuals have lived into the second decade of life.

Genetics

This condition has been described in 4 individuals who were products of consanquineous Amish couples.  Homozygous mutations in the TMPRSS4 gene (11q23.3), whose product is a serine transmembrane protease, seems to be responsible.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Corneal Dystrophy, Band-Shaped

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Symptoms of ocular irritation with tearing, conjunctival injection and decreased vision can be present at birth but more often is evident later in the first decade of life.  The band is located in the cornea in the palpebral fissure area in a horizontal pattern.  Apparently no other lesions are present in the eye.    

Systemic Features: 

None reported.

Genetics

Only three families with familial, isolated band keratopathy have been reported.  These were described in the mid-twentieth century and it is possible that they had underlying ocular and corneal disease.  In one family 3 of 9 children, the product of a first-cousin mating, were affected consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.  In two of these the keratopathy was first noted during puberty while it was present at birth in the third child.

 In another family the band keratopathy was seen in a brother and sister at 11 and 16 years old.

In the third family a father and son were affected.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Topically applied EDTA solutions are sometimes effective in removing lesions consisting of calcium deposits but this has not been reported to be effective in the hereditary form of band keratopathy. 

References
Article Title: 

Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders with Strabismus and Arthrogryposis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Strabismus and/or ophthalmoplegia are important features of a group of conditions known as cranial dysinnervation disorders.  Ptosis, Duane syndrome, V pattern exotropia and various degrees of ophthalmoplegia may be seen.  There may be considerable asymmetry in the manifestations in the two eyes.  Epicanthal folds, blepharophimosis, and hypermetropia are sometimes present.  Some patients have corneal leukomas, keratoglobus, high corneal astigmatism, and dysplastic optic disks. 

A pigmentary retinopathy and folds in the macula with an abnormal ERG has been reported.  Subnormal vision has been reported in some patients.

Systemic Features: 

Patients are often short in stature with pectus excavatum, spine stiffness, highly arched palate, and club feet.  Limited forearm rotation and wrist extension may be present.  The fingers appear long and often have contractures while the palmar and phalangeal creases may be absent.  Camptodactyly and clinodactyly are common.  Deep tendon reflexes are often hyporeactive and decreased muscle mass has been noted.  The muscles seem "firm" to palpation.  Restrictive lung disease has been reported.  Hearing loss is experienced by some individuals.

Genetics

Distal arthrogryposis type 5D is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ECEL1 gene located at 2q36.  However, a similar phenotype (albeit with more severe ocular manifestations) results from heterozygous mutations in PIEZO2 (18p11).  Heterozygous mutations in the PIEZO2 gene have also been reported to cause distal arthrogryposis type 3 (Gordon syndrome [114300]) and Marden-Walker syndrome (248700) and all of these may be simply phenotypical variations of the same disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for this condition.  Patients with subnormal vision may benefit from low vision aids and selective surgery may be helpful in reducing the physical restrictions from physical deformities.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in PIEZO2 cause Gordon syndrome, Marden-Walker syndrome, and distal arthrogryposis type 5

McMillin MJ, Beck AE, Chong JX, Shively KM, Buckingham KJ, Gildersleeve HI, Aracena MI, Aylsworth AS, Bitoun P, Carey JC, Clericuzio CL, Crow YJ, Curry CJ, Devriendt K, Everman DB, Fryer A, Gibson K, Giovannucci Uzielli ML, Graham JM Jr, Hall JG, Hecht JT, Heidenreich RA, Hurst JA, Irani S, Krapels IP, Leroy JG, Mowat D, Plant GT, Robertson SP, Schorry EK, Scott RH, Seaver LH, Sherr E, Splitt M, Stewart H, Stumpel C, Temel SG, Weaver DD, Whiteford M, Williams MS, Tabor HK, Smith JD, Shendure J, Nickerson DA; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Bamshad MJ. Mutations in PIEZO2 cause Gordon syndrome, Marden-Walker syndrome, and distal arthrogryposis type 5. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 May 1;94(5):734-44.

PubMed ID: 
24726473

Roberts Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes often appear prominent as the result of shallow orbits.  Hypertelorism and microphthalmia can be present.  The sclerae can have a bluish hue.   Cataracts and central corneal clouding plus scleralization and vascularization of the peripheral corneas are sometimes seen.  Lid colobomas and down-slanting palpebral fissures may be present.

Systemic Features: 

Failure of both membranous and long bones to grow properly lead to a variety of abnormalities such as craniosynostosis, hypomelia, syndactyly, oligodactyly, malar hypoplasia, short neck, micrognathia, and cleft lip and palate.  The long bones of the limbs may be underdeveloped or even absent.  Contractures of elbow, knee, and ankle joints are common as are digital anomalies.  Low birth weight and slow postnatal growth rates are usually result in short stature.  The hair is often sparse and light-colored. 

Mental development is impaired and some children are diagnosed to have mental retardation.  Cardiac defects are common.  Facial hemangiomas are often present as are septal defects and sometimes a patent ductus arteriosus.  External genitalia in both sexes appear enlarged.  The kidneys may be polycystic or horseshoe-shaped.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the ESCO2 gene (8p21.1).  Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for what some have called the SC phocomelia syndrome (269000) which has a similar but less severe phenotype.  Some consider the two disorders to be variants of the same condition and they are considered to be the same entity in this database.  The gene product is required for structural maintenance of centromeric cohesion during the cell cycle.  Microscopic anomalies of the centromeric region (puffing of the heterochromatic regions) are sometimes seen during cell division.

The Baller-Gerold syndrome (218600) has some phenotypic overlap with Roberts syndrome but is caused by mutations in a different gene (RECQL4).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Severely affected infants may be stillborn or die in infancy.  Other individuals live to adulthood.  There is no treatment for this condition beyond specific correction of individual anomalies.

References
Article Title: 

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