autosomal recessive

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 9

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Both microphthalmia and clinical anophthalmia have been described in this syndrome.  However, autopsy has shown true anophthalmia in a few cases who were stillborn or died in the neonatal period.  At least one eye can be cystic. The optic nerves are often hypoplastic and may be absent.  High, upward-arching eyebrows may be seen.

Systemic Features

An early manifestation of this disorder is neonatal pulmonary distress.  The lungs are usually hypoplastic or malformed. Cardiac malformations such as patent ductus arteriosus, septal and valvular defects, tetralogy of Fallot, and single ventricles are often present.  Diaphragmatic hernias or defects are common but hiatal hernias and frank eventration of abdominal contents have also been reported.  Renal anomalies and intrauterine growth retardation have been noted.         

Some infants have micrognathia, low-set ears, a broad nasal bridge, brachycephaly, and midline clefts of the palate.  Cerebral malformations are seldom present.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the STRA6 gene (15q24.1) have been found in a few cases which suggests autosomal recessive inheritance.  Parental consanguinity has been reported in some families.

Treatment Options

Treatment is directed at the repair of the organ defects in selected cases that have survival potential.   Survival rates are poor but those less severely affected may live for a decade.

References

West B, Bove KE, Slavotinek AM. Two novel STRA6 mutations in a patient with anophthalmia and diaphragmatic eventration (Letter). Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):539-42.

PubMed ID: 
19213032

Chitayat D, Sroka H, Keating S, Colby RS, Ryan G, Toi A, Blaser S, Viero S, Devisme L, Boute-Bénéjean O, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mortier G, Loeys B, Rauch A, Bitoun P. The PDAC syndrome (pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, and cardiac defect) (Spear syndrome, Matthew-Wood syndrome): report of eight cases including a living child and further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jun 15;143A(12):1268-81.

PubMed ID: 
17506106

Pasutto F, Sticht H, Hammersen G, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Fitzpatrick DR, Nürnberg G, Brasch F, Schirmer-Zimmermann H, Tolmie JL, Chitayat D, Houge G, Fernández-Martínez L, Keating S, Mortier G, Hennekam RC, von der Wense A, Slavotinek A, Meinecke P, Bitoun P, Becker C, Nürnberg P, Reis A, Rauch A. Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Mar;80(3):550-60.

PubMed ID: 
17273977

Iridogoniodysgenesis and Skeletal Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Megalocornea, congenital glaucoma, a concave iris with stromal atrophy and corectopia, and deep anterior chambers are typical ocular features.  High myopia has been reported and retinal detachments have been observed.  Glaucoma control can be difficult to achieve and there is a significant risk of cataracts and phthisis bulbi following surgery.  Posterior embryotoxon has not been observed.

Systemic Features

Facial features seem to be consistent.  The forehead is wide, the nose appears broad with a large nasal tip and broad nares although the bridge appears narrow.  The philtrum is long and wide.  The ears may appear large and the neck is short.  The thorax is abnormally wide and the nipples are widely spaced and umbilicated.  The long bones are slender with thin cortices and wide metaphyses.  There is generalized osteopenia.  Vertebral bodies are cuboid-shaped with narrow vertebral canals and enlarged apophyses

Genetics

Two non-consanguineous families each with 3 sibs have been reported suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance.  Nothing is known about the mutation or its locus.

The ocular features may resemble Rieger or Axenfeld anomaly but these are inherited in autosomal dominant patterns and the skeletal features are dissimilar.       

Treatment Options

Vigorous treatment of glaucoma is indicated but successful control, even with surgery, is difficult to achieve.

References

Rodríguez-Rojas LX, García-Cruz D, Mendoza-Topete R, Barba LB, Barrios MT, Patiño-García B, López-Cardona MG, Nuño-Arana I, García-Ortiz JE, Cantú JM. Familial iridogoniodysgenesis and skeletal anomalies: a probable new autosomal recessive disorder. Clin Genet. 2004 Jul;66(1):23-9.

PubMed ID: 
15200504

García-Cruz D, Mendoza R, Villar V, Sanchez-Corona J, García-Cruz MO, Rojas Q, Chavez-Anaya F, Nazara Z, Barrios MT, Cantu JM. A distinct dysmorphic syndrome with congenital glaucoma and probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Ophthalmic Paediatr Genet. 1990 Mar;11(1):35-40.

PubMed ID: 
2348980

Stickler Syndrome, Type IV

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Evidence of vitreoretinal degeneration is common and the risk of retinal detachment is high.  High myopia is common.  Cataracts are not a feature in contrast to types I and II Stickler syndrome.

It is likely that the ocular phenotype will be expanded with the report of additional families.

Systemic Features

Sensorineural hearing loss and short stature are often present. The latter is not usually a feature in other types of Stickler syndrome.  However, midface hypoplasia and micrognathia may be present in all types as well as in Marshall syndrome.  Midline clefting usually does not occur.

Genetics

A reported pedigree suggests autosomal recessive inheritance based on parental consanguinity and the lack of parent-to-child transmission.  Affected individuals have homozygous deletion mutations leading to loss of function in COL9A2 (1p33-p32) while parents are heterozygous.  A family with mutations in COL9A1 (6q12-q14), usually causing multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, has been reported to have autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome as well.  Homozygous individuals had typical ocular and auditory findings of autosomal dominant Stickler syndrome but with evidence of epiphyseal dysplasia.

Type I Stickler syndrome (108300, 609508) is an autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat similar ocular manifestations resulting from mutations in COL2A1.

Type II Stickler syndrome (604841) with a somewhat similar ocular phenotype is also an autosomal dominant disorder but caused by mutations in COL11A1.

Treatment Options

The myopia and hearing loss can be corrected.  Lifelong vigilance and prompt treatment are required for the vitreoretinal disease.

References

Baker S, Booth C, Fillman C, Shapiro M, Blair MP, Hyland JC, Ala-Kokko L. A loss of function mutation in the COL9A2 gene causes autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2011 Jul;155(7):1668-72.

PubMed ID: 
21671392

Van Camp G, Snoeckx RL, Hilgert N, van den Ende J, Fukuoka H, Wagatsuma M, Suzuki H, Smets RM, Vanhoenacker F, Declau F, Van de Heyning P, Usami S. A new autosomal recessive form of Stickler syndrome is caused by a mutation in the COL9A1 gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Sep;79(3):449-57.

PubMed ID: 
16909383

Glaucoma, Congenital Primary D

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Evidence of glaucoma can appear in early childhood but may appear much later.  However, typical signs such as enlarged corneas or frank buphthalmos, cloudiness of the corneas, tearing and photophobia are present only when the pressure is elevated due to pupillary block or when the lens migrates into the anterior chamber.  Most patients have additional signs such as ectopia lentis and spherophakia.

Systemic Features

Some patients have osteopenia, a high arched palate, and a marfanoid habitus.

Genetics

This form of congenital glaucoma has been described primarily in Middle Eastern and Asian as well as Roma/Gypsy families and is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.  The mutations occur in the LTBP2 gene (14q24) which is in close proximity to GLC3C, another putative gene with mutations causing congenital glaucoma. 

Mutations in other genes are also associated with primary congenital glaucoma such as in CYP1B1 causing type A (231300) and in GLC3B causing type B (600975).

THIS IS NOT A PRIMARY GLAUCOMA DISORDER.  Microspherophakia and ectopia lentis are not features of primary congenital glaucoma.  Elevated pressures in these patients are found only when there is a pupillary block or when the lens dislocates into the anterior chamber.  The enlarged cornea is clear and has no breaks in the Descemet membrane.  THIS CONDITION IS THEREFORE RECLASSIFIED AS “MEGALOCORNEA, ECTOPIA LENTIS, AND SPHEROPHAKIA”.     

Treatment Options

The usual surgical and pharmacological treatments for glaucoma apply but vision preservation is a challenge.  The spherophakic or dislocated lenses may need to be removed.

References

Azmanov DN, Dimitrova S, Florez L, Cherninkova S, Draganov D, Morar B, Saat R, Juan M, Arostegui JI, Ganguly S, Soodyall H, Chakrabarti S, Padh H, López-Nevot MA, Chernodrinska V, Anguelov B, Majumder P, Angelova L, Kaneva R, Mackey DA, Tournev I, Kalaydjieva L. LTBP2 and CYP1B1 mutations and associated ocular phenotypes in the Roma/Gypsy founder population. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Mar;19(3):326-33.

PubMed ID: 
21081970

Ali M, McKibbin M, Booth A, Parry DA, Jain P, Riazuddin SA, Hejtmancik JF, Khan SN, Firasat S, Shires M, Gilmour DF, Towns K, Murphy AL, Azmanov D, Tournev I, Cherninkova S, Jafri H, Raashid Y, Toomes C, Craig J, Mackey DA, Kalaydjieva L, Riazuddin S, Inglehearn CF. Null mutations in LTBP2 cause primary congenital glaucoma. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 May;84(5):664-71.

PubMed ID: 
19361779

Wilson Disease

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

The cornea and lens have visible copper deposition.  This is responsible for the classic (though non-pathognomonic) copper-colored Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea where evidence of copper deposition can be visualized in the posterior stroma and in the endothelium.  About 50-60% of patients at any point have evidence of such copper deposition but the number rises to 90% in patients with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms.  Copper deposition in the lens leads to a ‘sunflower’ or 'sunburst' cataract consisting of a greenish central disc in the anterior capsule with spoke-like radial cortical opacities.  Eye involvement in Wilson disease usually does not lead to significant impairment of vision.

Systemic Features

This is a disorder of copper metabolism.  It is associated with severe liver disease, often beginning with signs of recurrent jaundice, sometimes a hepatitis-like illness, and often culminating in liver failure.  Hepatobiliary malignancies are a significant risk, occurring in more than 1 percent of patients.  Neurologic toxicity leads to various movement disorders such as tremors, poor coordination, dystonia, and choreoathetosis.  Many patients have mental symptoms such as depression, neurotic behavior, and personality disturbances.  Some have a mask-like facies and pseudobulbar symptoms.  Symptoms can appear anytime from 3 years of age to over 50.  Other organs such as kidney, pancreas, heart and even joints may also be involved.

Patients often have a low serum ceruloplasmin, low copper levels, increased urinary excretion of copper, and increased concentration of copper in the liver.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by homozygous or doubly heterozygous mutations in the ATP7B gene (13q14.3).  Heterozygotes usually do not develop symptoms but may have reduced serum ceruloplasmin levels.

Treatment Options

Zinc and/or copper chelating agents such as D-penicillamine or trientine have long been used with benefit but the treatment must be used throughout life.  Reduced copper intake may also be helpful.  An orthotopic liver transplant can prolong life in selected patients.

References

Pfeiffenberger J, Mogler C, Gotthardt DN, Schulze-Bergkamen H, Litwin T, Reuner U, Hefter H, Huster D, Schemmer P, Członkowska A, Schirmacher P, Stremmel W, Cassiman D, Weiss KH. Hepatobiliary malignancies in Wilson disease. Liver Int. 2014 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
25369181

Ram J, Gupta A. Kayser-Fleischer Ring and Sunflower Cataract in Wilson Disease. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 May 8. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24809467

Roberts EA, Schilsky ML; Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A practice guideline on Wilson disease. Hepatology. 2003 Jun;37(6):1475-92. Erratum in: Hepatology. 2003 Aug;38(2):536.

PubMed ID: 
12774027

Dobyns WB, Goldstein NP, Gordon H. Clinical spectrum of Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration). Mayo Clin Proc. 1979 Jan;54(1):35-42.

PubMed ID: 
759736

Frommer D, Morris J, Sherlock S, Abrams J, Newman S. Kayser-Fleischer-like rings in patients without Wilson's disease. Gastroenterology. 1977 Jun;72(6):1331-5.

PubMed ID: 
558126

Oculoauricular Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

This rare malformation syndrome affects primarily the eyes and ears.  The globes are small and usually have colobomas of both anterior and posterior segments.  The corneas likewise are small and often have opacities.  The anterior segment is dysplastic with anterior and/or posterior synechiae.  Glaucoma may be present.  The lenses may be small and often become cataractous.  There is a progressive rod-cone dystrophy associated with a pigmentary retinopathy.  Chorioretinal lacunae have been seen in the equatorial region.  The retinal degeneration is progressive, beginning with rod dysfunction but followed by deterioration of all receptors.  The onset in early childhood results in poor vision and nystagmus. 

Systemic Features

The external ears are abnormal.  The earlobes may have colobomas or may be aplastic.  The intertragic notch is often underdeveloped.  Audiograms and vestibular function tests, however, show normal function and MRI of the middle and inner ears likewise reveals no anatomic abnormalities.       

Among the few patients reported, dental anomalies, spina bifida oculta, and mild dyscrania have been noted in individual patients.

Genetics

This rare disorder has been reported in only a few families.  Based on parental consanguinity and homozygosity of mutations in the HMX1 gene (4p16.1) in affected sibs, this is an autosomal recessive disorder.  In one family there was a homozygous 26 bp deletion and in another a homozygous missense mutation.  The parents are heterozygous for the deletion.

HMX1 is a homeobox gene and the deletion abolishes its function by establishing a stop codon at position 112.

Treatment Options

No treatment is available for the extraocular malformations.  Glaucoma treatment and cataract surgery should be considered although permanent visual rehabilitation is unlikely given the progressive nature of the rod-cone dystrophy.

References

Gillespie RL, Urquhart J, Lovell SC, Biswas S, Parry NR, Schorderet DF, Lloyd IC, Clayton-Smith J, Black GC. Abrogation of HMX1 Function Causes Rare Oculoauricular Syndrome Associated With Congenital Cataract, Anterior Segment Dysgenesis, and Retinal Dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jan 8;56(2):883-91.

PubMed ID: 
25574057

Vaclavik V, Schorderet DF, Borruat FX, Munier FL. Retinal Dystrophy In The Oculo-auricular Syndrome Due to HMX1 Mutation. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011 Jun;32(2):114-7.

PubMed ID: 
21417677

Schorderet DF, Nichini O, Boisset G, Polok B, Tiab L, Mayeur H, Raji B, de la Houssaye G, Abitbol MM, Munier FL. Mutation in the human homeobox gene NKX5-3 causes an oculo-auricular syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 May;82(5):1178-84.

PubMed ID: 
18423520

Cataracts, Congenital, Autosomal Recessive 3

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

This type of congenital cataract has been reported in two unrelated Pakistani families.  The phenotype was dissimilar in the two families.  In one, only posterior subcapsular opacification was present.  In the other the cataract was membranous and accompanied by a corneal opacity, microcornea, and nystagmus.  Nothing is known about the course of the opacification.

Systemic Features

No systemic disease is apparently present.

Genetics

Consanguinity was reported for both families.  Fine mapping identified a locus at 1p34.3-p32.2 that cosegregates with the lens opacities but the mutation is unknown.  This region is distinct from the locus containing the mutation(s) causing Volkmann (115665) and posterior polar (116600) autosomal dominant cataracts.

Treatment Options

Visually significant lens opacities could be removed.

References

Butt T, Yao W, Kaul H, Xiaodong J, Gradstein L, Zhang Y, Husnain T, Riazuddin S, Hejtmancik JF, Riazuddin SA. Localization of autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in consanguineous Pakistani families to a new locus on chromosome 1p. Mol Vis. 2007 Sep 10;13:1635-40.

PubMed ID: 
17893665

Wolfram Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

As in Wolfram syndrome 1, only insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy are essential to the diagnosis. The optic atrophy is progressive over a period of years and can be the presenting sign.  Its onset, however, is highly variable and may begin in infancy but almost always before the third decade of life.  The majority (77%) of patients are legally blind within a decade of onset.  The visual field may show paracentral scotomas and peripheral constriction.  Both VEPs and ERGs can be abnormal.  Diabetic retinopathy is uncommon and usually mild.

Systemic Features

The clinical features of this disorder are many and highly variable.  Sensorineural hearing loss, anemia, seizures, ataxia, and autonomic neuropathy are usually present. Respiratory failure secondary to brain stem atrophy may have fatal consequences by the age of 30 years.  A variety of mental disturbances including mental retardation, dementia, depression, and behavioral disorders have been reported.  The diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent with childhood onset.  Hydroureter is often present.

Diabetes insipidus has not been a feature in 16 patients reported with this disorder but upper GI ulceration and bleeding were present in several individuals.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder similar to Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1; 222300) but caused by mutations in the CISD2 gene (4q22-q24).  The gene codes for a small protein (ERIS) localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. It seems to occur less commonly than WFS1.

Some patients have mutations in mitochondrial DNA as the basis for their disease (598500).  Combined with evidence that point mutations at the 4p16.1 locus predisposes deletions in mtDNA, this suggests that at least some patients with Wolfram syndrome have a recessive disease caused by mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

Treatment Options

Treatment is supportive for specific organ disease.  Low vision aids may be helpful in selected individuals.

References

Amr S, Heisey C, Zhang M, Xia XJ, Shows KH, Ajlouni K, Pandya A, Satin LS, El-Shanti H, Shiang R. A homozygous mutation in a novel zinc-finger protein, ERIS, is responsible for Wolfram syndrome 2. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Oct;81(4):673-83.

PubMed ID: 
17846994

El-Shanti H, Lidral AC, Jarrah N, Druhan L, Ajlouni K. Homozygosity mapping identifies an additional locus for Wolfram syndrome on chromosome 4q. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Apr;66(4):1229-36.

PubMed ID: 
10739754

Wolfram Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Optic atrophy in association with diabetes mellitus is considered necessary to the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome.  The optic atrophy is progressive over a period of years and can be the presenting symptom.  Its onset, however, is highly variable and may begin in infancy but almost always before the third decade of life.  The majority (77%) of patients are legally blind within a decade of onset.  The visual field may show paracentral scotomas and peripheral constriction.  Both VEPs and ERGs can be abnormal.  Diabetic retinopathy is uncommon and usually mild.

Two sibs with confirmed WFS1 have been reported with microspherophakia, congenital cataracts, and glaucoma in addition to optic atrophy .

Systemic Features

The clinical features of this disorder are many and highly variable.  Sensorineural hearing loss, diabetes insipidus, anemia, seizures, vasopressin deficiency, ataxia, and autonomic neuropathy are usually present. Respiratory failure secondary to brain stem atrophy may have fatal consequences by the age of 30 years.  A variety of mental disturbances including mental retardation, dementia, depression, and behavioral disorders have been reported.  The diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent with childhood onset.  Dilated ureters and neurogenic bladder are frequently seen, especially in older patients..

Genetics

Wolfram syndrome 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder that be caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene (4p16.1) encoding wolframin, a small protein important to maintenance of the endoplasmic reticulum.  However, a minority of individuals also have deletion mutations in mitochondrial DNA (598500).  Some evidence suggests that point mutations at 4p16.1 predispose deletions in mtDNA, and, if so, this recessive disorder may owe its appearance to combined mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.  In addition, rare families with the Wolfram syndrome phenotype and mutations in the WFS1 gene show transmission patterns consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance.

Wolfram syndrome 2 (WFS2) (604928) results from mutations in CISD2 at 4q22-q24.

Treatment Options

No treatment is available for Wolfram syndrome but the administration of thiamin can correct the anemia.  Low vision aids may be helpful in early stages of disease.

References

Chacón-Camacho O, Arce-Gonzalez R, Granillo-Alvarez M, Flores-Limas S, Ramírez M, Zenteno JC. Expansion of the Clinical Ocular Spectrum of Wolfram Syndrome in a Family Carrying a Novel WFS1 Gene Deletion. Ophthalmic Genet. 2013 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
13373429

Cano A, Rouzier C, Monnot S, Chabrol B, Conrath J, Lecomte P, Delobel B, Boileau P, Valero R, Procaccio V, Paquis-Flucklinger V; French Group of Wolfram Syndrome, Vialettes B. Identification of novel mutations in WFS1 and genotype-phenotype correlation in Wolfram syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jul 15;143A(14):1605-12.

PubMed ID: 
17568405

Inoue H, Tanizawa Y, Wasson J, Behn P, Kalidas K, Bernal-Mizrachi E, Mueckler M, Marshall H, Donis-Keller H, Crock P, Rogers D, Mikuni M, Kumashiro H, Higashi K, Sobue G, Oka Y, Permutt MA. A gene encoding a transmembrane protein is mutated in patients with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy (Wolfram syndrome). Nat Genet. 1998 Oct;20(2):143-8.

PubMed ID: 
9771706

Cockayne Syndrome, Type II

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

The eyes are deep-set.  Congenital cataracts are present in 30% of infants.  The aggressive course of this form of CS has precluded full delineation of the ocular features but infants have been described with microphthalmos, microcornea and iris hypoplasia. 

Systemic Features

Evidence of somatic and neurologic delays is present at birth or shortly thereafter with microcephaly and short stature.  Infants never develop normal milestones and may not grow in size beyond that of a 6 month-old child.  Communication skills are minimal.  They have a progeroid appearance, age rapidly, and most do not live beyond 5 years of age.   Feeding problems are common with considerable risk of aspiration, a common cause of respiratory infections and early death.  Severe flexion contractures develop early and may interfere with motor function.  Tremors and weakness contribute as well.  The skin is sensitive to UV radiation in some but not all patients.  However, the frequency of skin cancer is not increased.  Endogenous temperature regulation may be a problem. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in ERCC6 (10q11) rendering the excision-repair cross-complementing protein ineffective in correcting defects during DNA replication.  Mutations in this gene account for about 75% of CS patients.  However, using date of onset and clinical severity, type I CS (216400) disease is far more common even though the ERCC8 mutations are found in only 25% of individuals.  Type I CS (216400) also has a somewhat later onset and is less severe in early stages.

Type III (216411) is poorly defined but seems to have a considerably later onset and milder disease.  The mutation is type III is unknown.

Some patients have combined  phenotypical features of Cockayne syndrome (CS) and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) known as the XP-CS complex (216400).  Defective DNA repair resulting from mutations in excision-repair cross-complementing or ERCC genes is common to both disorders.  Two complementation groups have been identified in CS and seven in XP.  XP patients with CS features fall into only three (B, D, G) of the XP groups.  XP-CS patients have extreme skin photosensitivity and a huge increase in skin cancers of all types.  They also have an increase in nervous system neoplasms. 

Treatment Options

Feeding tubes may be necessary to maintain nutrition.  Protection from the sun is important.  Physical therapy can be used to minimize contractures.  Cataract surgery might be considered in selected cases as well as assistive devices for hearing problems but the limited lifespan should be considered. 

References

Natale V. A comprehensive description of the severity groups in Cockayne syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2011 May;155(5):1081-95.

PubMed ID: 
21480477

Falik-Zaccai TC, Laskar M, Kfir N, Nasser W, Slor H, Khayat M. Cockayne syndrome type II in a Druze isolate in Northern Israel in association with an insertion mutation in ERCC6. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Jun 1;146A(11):1423-9.

PubMed ID: 
18446857

Rapin I, Lindenbaum Y, Dickson DW, Kraemer KH, Robbins JH. Cockayne syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Neurology. 2000 Nov 28;55(10):1442-9. Review. PubMed PMID:

PubMed ID: 
11185579