autosomal recessive

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 3B (Infantile Refsum Disease)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This peroxisomal disorder presents in the first year of life with both systemic and ocular features.  Night blindness is the major ocular feature and at least some have optic atrophy similar to the adult form.  Nystagmus may be present.  Reduction or absence of rod responses on ERG can be used in young children to document the retinopathy. Blindness and deafness commonly occur in childhood.

Systemic Features: 

This disorder is classified as a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) associated with the breakdown of phytanic acid.  Ataxia and features of motor neuron disease are evident early.  Hepatomegaly and jaundice may also be an early diagnostic feature as bile acid metabolism is defective.  Infant hypotonia is often seen.  Nonspecific facial dysmorphism has been reported as a feature. The teeth are abnormally large and often have yellowish discoloration.  Postural unsteadiness is evident when patients begin walking.  Diagnosis can be suspected from elevated serum phytanic and pipecolic acid (in 20% of patients) or by demonstration of decreased phytanic acid oxidation in cultured fibroblasts.  Other biochemical abnormalities such as hypocholesterolemia and elevated very long chain fatty acids and trihydroxycholestanoic acid are usually present.  Anosmia and mental retardation are nearly universal features.  Early mortality in infancy or childhood is common although some survive into the 2nd and 3rd decades.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) resulting from mutations in a number of PEX genes (PEX1, PEX2, PEX3, PEX12, PEX26).  It shares many features with other PBDs including those formerly called Zellweger syndrome (214100), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (215100), and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (601539).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Knobloch Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular findings include high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, dislocated lenses, cataracts, and retinal detachment.  Some patients have early onset (2-4 years old) night blindness and progress to total blindness before 20 years of age.  Nystagmus, strabismus, small optic discs, glaucoma, and cataracts have been reported.  Poor vision and progressive loss of acuity are common.  The vitreous appears to be condensed into sheets and there may be distortion of the vitreoretinal interface with irregular white dots and lines.  Pigmentary changes are common in the retina which some have described as consistent with choroidal sclerosis and chorioretinal atrophy.  Atrophic changes are often seen in the macula.

Systemic Features: 

The degree of skull and brain defects is variable.  Some patients have only occipital scalp defects while others have occipital encephaloceles.  The scalp defect may contain heterotopic neuronal tissue suggesting neuronal migratory defects.  Brain imaging has revealed a variety of defects and some patients have cognitive deficits and personality changes.  Cerebellar atrophy with ataxia is found in some patients.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to homozygous mutations in the COL18A1 gene (21q22.3).  Mutated COL18A1 leads to defects in type XVIII collagen which is a component of basement membranes throughout the body, especially in the eye.

In spite of some clinical similarities, this disorder is genetically distinct from Knobloch 2 syndrome (608454).  A third type, KNO3, has been proposed since the Knobloch clinical features were found in a 4-generation consanguineous Pakistani family but the phenotype mapped to 17q11.2.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is largely supportive.  Attempts at repair of retinal detachments often fail and phthisis bulbi is not uncommon.

References
Article Title: 

Mannosidosis, Alpha B

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Many (probably most) patients have lens opacities and some have corneal opacities as well.  Nystagmus and strabismus have been described.  Pigmentary changes of a mottled nature can be present in the posterior pole and may be associated with retinal vessel attenuation and diminished ERG responses.  Retinal thinning can be demonstrated.  A mixture of hypo- and hyperautofluorescence is often visible.  Mild optic atrophy has been seen.  There is evidence for progressive visual loss, even late in life.  Eyebrows appear thick.    

Systemic Features: 

Mannosidosis is a highly variable multisystem disorder.  Onset may be in infancy but in other patients symptoms appear later in the first decade.  Progression of disease is more rapid in individuals with early onset (type 3) with rapid mental, motor deterioration and early death.  The characteristic coarse facial features usually are evident later in milder cases (types 1 and 2) that have mild or moderate intellectual disabilities.  Regardless, mannosidosis is relentlessly progressive with mental deterioration and motor disabilities.  Ataxia is a common feature.  Dental anomalies (diastema), large ears, macroglossia, joint stiffness,, hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged head circumference, hearing loss (sensorineural), increased susceptibility to infections, dysarthria, and spondylolysis may be present.

Genetics

Alpha-mannosidoosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the MAN2B1 gene (19p13.2).  There is another form of mannosidosis known as beta A  (248510) caused by mutations in MANBA but ocular features have not been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Prompt treatment for infections is required and prophylactic vaccinations are indicated.  All individuals should be seen annually and assistive devices such as wheel chairs and hearing aids prescribed when needed.

Fructose Intolerance

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Dense cataracts have been reported in the first decade of life in several patients.

Systemic Features: 

Abdominal pain, vomiting and hypoglycemia usually appears in infancy upon the introduction of fructose or sucrose to the diet.  Some infants have a more severe reaction to such sugars with lethargy, seizures and coma.  Older children and adults develop a protective aversion to fruits and sweets.  Chronic ingestion leads to liver cirrhosis, renal tubule damage, growth retardation, and even malnutrition.  Adults may also have hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis when challenged with sucrose and fructose.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the ALDOB gene (9q31.1).  However, several heterozygous patients with symptoms have been reported and such individuals may be predisposed to hyperuricemia.  Multiple mutations have been identified in the ALDOB gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment with a fructose restricted diet is highly effective but must be strictly enforced to allow normal growth.

References
Article Title: 

Hereditary fructose intolerance

Ali M, Rellos P, Cox TM. Hereditary fructose intolerance. J Med Genet. 1998 May;35(5):353-65. Review.

PubMed ID: 
9610797

Retinitis Pigmentosa, Hearing Loss, Ataxia, Cataract, and Polyneuropathy

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cataracts and a pigmentary retinopathy occur in this condition but only in some, primarily older, patients.  The lens opacities progress and may become visually significant by the third decade.  Bone-spicule-shaped pigment clumping may be present in the midperiphery while the optic disk is often pale and the retinal vessels are attenuated. The ERG responses are consistent with a rod-cone dystrophy.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive neurological disorder with onset of signs and symptoms in childhood although full expression may not occur until adulthood.  Young children can have hyporeflexia, pes cavus, spasticity, and gait ataxia.  A sensorineural hearing loss may also be present in childhood but sometimes not until later.  Hyperreflexia with extensor plantar responses and Achilles tendon contractures are often present later.  The peripheral polyneuropathy is predominantly demyelinating with both sensory and motor components and is present in all adults.  Cerebellar atrophy, primarily in the vermis, can be demonstrated on MRI examination.  Mental function is usually not impaired. Some patients have dysarthria. 

This disorder has some clinical similarities to Refsum disease (266500).

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from homozygous mutations in the ABHD12 gene (20p11.21).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at symptoms.  Visually significant cataracts may require removal.  Low vision aids and physical therapy can be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in ABHD12 cause the neurodegenerative disease PHARC: An inborn error of endocannabinoid metabolism

Fiskerstrand T, H'mida-Ben Brahim D, Johansson S, M'zahem A, Haukanes BI, Drouot N, Zimmermann J, Cole AJ, Vedeler C, Bredrup C, Assoum M, Tazir M, Klockgether T, Hamri A, Steen VM, Boman H, Bindoff LA, Koenig M, Knappskog PM. Mutations in ABHD12 cause the neurodegenerative disease PHARC: An inborn error of endocannabinoid metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Sep 10;87(3):410-7.

PubMed ID: 
20797687

Spastic Paraplegia 7

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Many but not all individuals have significant visual loss due to optic atrophy.  Other ocular signs include supranuclear palsy, ptosis, and nystagmus.  Older individuals with advanced disease may have progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

Systemic Features: 

There is a great deal of clinical heterogeneity between families and not all individuals have severe neurological disease.  Progressive neurological signs (primarily abnormal gait) are often present in late childhood or early adolescence but may occur late in life.  Clinical features include muscle atrophy and weakness with spasticity (more pronounced in the lower limbs), ataxia, pyramidal signs, dysphagia, and cerebellar dysarthria.  Hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses are often present.  Cognitive deficits are manifest as deficits in attention and higher levels of reasoning.  Some patients have a mild peripheral neuropathy with decreased vibratory sense.  Many patients have significant dysfunction of the bladder sphincter.  Adults may lose their mobility and are confined to a wheelchair.

Some patients develop scoliosis and pes cavus.  The MRI often shows cerebellar and mild frontal cortical atrophy.

Genetics

This type of spastic paraplegia results from mutations in the paraplegin gene, SPG7 (16q24.3).  It is usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern although heterozygous patients with symptoms have been reported. Evidence suggests that the symptoms arise from a defect in mitochondrial respiration.

Patients with spastic paraplegia 15 (270700) have a similar neurological phenotype plus a flecked retina.  Congenital cataracts are part of the phenotype of spastic paraplegia 46 (614409).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is symptomatic.  Physical, speech, and occupational therapy may be helpful in selected patients.  Low vision aids may be of benefit in some individuals, at least early in the disease.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in the SPG7 gene cause chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia through disordered mitochondrial DNA maintenance

Pfeffer G, Gorman GS, Griffin H, Kurzawa-Akanbi M, Blakely EL, Wilson I, Sitarz K, Moore D, Murphy JL, Alston CL, Pyle A, Coxhead J, Payne B, Gorrie GH, Longman C, Hadjivassiliou M, McConville J, Dick D, Imam I, Hilton D, Norwood F, Baker MR, Jaiser SR, Yu-Wai-Man P, Farrell M, McCarthy A, Lynch T, McFarland R, Schaefer AM, Turnbull DM, Horvath R, Taylor RW, Chinnery PF. Mutations in the SPG7 gene cause chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia through disordered mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Brain. 2014 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24727571

A clinical, genetic, and biochemical characterization of SPG7 mutations in a large cohort of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia

Arnoldi A, Tonelli A, Crippa F, Villani G, Pacelli C, Sironi M, Pozzoli U, D'Angelo MG, Meola G, Martinuzzi A, Crimella C, Redaelli F, Panzeri C, Renieri A, Comi GP, Turconi AC, Bresolin N, Bassi MT. A clinical, genetic, and biochemical characterization of SPG7 mutations in a large cohort of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Hum Mutat. 2008 Apr;29(4):522-31.

PubMed ID: 
18200586

Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation, Type Ia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Strabismus, roving eye movements (and nystagmus), and visual inattention are found in nearly all patients. Esotropia with defective abduction seems to be the most common oculomotor finding and may be present at birth.  Cataracts, ocular colobomas, oculomotor apraxia, disc pallor, and glaucoma have also been reported.  Vision is always subnormal. Reports of ocular disease before modern genotyping are not specific to the subtypes of CDG I now recognized.

This is a congenital, progressive disorder of photoreceptor degeneration with a later onset of progressive pigmentary retinopathy.  It is described in some cases as a typical retinitis pigmentosa.  The ERG is abnormal in all patients even if the pigmentary pattern is atypical for RP.  Rod responses are usually absent while the cone b-wave implicit time is delayed.  The degree of photoreceptor damage is variable, however.  Extended retinal function among younger patients suggest that the ‘on-pathway’ evolving synapses in the outer plexiform layer among photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and horizontal cells is severely dysfunctional.

Systemic Features: 

This is a multisystem disorder, often diagnosed in the neonatal period by the presence of severe encephalopathy with hypotonia, hyporeflexia, and poor feeding.  Failure to thrive, marked psychomotor retardation, delayed development, growth retardation, and ataxia become evident later in those who survive.  Cerebellar and brainstem atrophy with a peripheral neuropathy can be demonstrated during late childhood.  Some older patients have a milder disease, often with muscle atrophy and skeletal deformities such as kyphoscoliosis and a fusiform appearance of the digits.  Maldistribution of subcutaneous tissue is often seen resulting in some dysmorphism, especially of the face.  Hypogonadism and enlargement of the labia majora are commonly present.  Some patients have evidence of hepatic and cardiac dysfunction which together with severe infections are responsible for a 20% mortality rate in the first year of life.

Genetics

This is one of a group of genetically (and clinically) heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions caused by gene mutations that result in enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of oligosaccharides onto glycoproteins. This type (Ia) is the most common.   The mutation lies in the PMM2 gene (16p13.2).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Most children require tube feeding with nutritional supplements.  The risk of systemic infections is high.  Those patients who survive into the second decade and beyond may require orthopedic procedures and are confined to wheelchairs.  Physical, occupational, and speech therapy along with parental support are important.

References
Article Title: 

Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation, Type Iq

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Colobomas (iris, choroid, and sometimes optic nerve), optic nerve hypoplasia and nystagmus have been reported.  Visual acuity is variable depending upon the degree of nerve hypoplasia. The eyebrows may be highly arched, while downward slanting lid fissures, and hypertelorism may also be present.

Congenital cataracts, glaucoma and microphthalmia have been reported in several individuals.

Systemic Features: 

Onset of symptoms commonly begins in infancy with severe hypotonia while developmental delays soon become evident as most children do not achieve normal milestones.  The amount of cognitive impairment is variable.  Congenital cardiac defects, ichthyosis, and hypertrichosis may be present.  The skin over the dorsum of the hands and feet often appears dark.  Ataxia is sometimes present and MRIs may reveal vermal and cerebellar hypoplasia.

Facial dysmorphism is common.  Low-set malformed ears, low hairline, depressed nasal bridge, redundant facial skin, decreased subcutaneous tissue, large mouth, thin lips, and long face have been noted.

There is considerable variation in clinical manifestations and longevity varies from infancy to adulthood.

Genetics

This glycosylation disorder is one of a number of rare hepatic/intestinal disorders caused by a deficiency in N-oligosaccharide synthesis.  It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern as a result of mutations in SRD5A3 (4q12).  Both homozygous and compound heterozygous genotypes have been reported.  It is allelic to Kahrizi syndrome (612713) with a number of overlapping features including ocular colobomas and cognitive deficiencies.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The administration of caloric supplements through tube feeding may be required to maintain adequate nutrition.Orthopedic deformities can sometimes be corrected surgically.

References
Article Title: 

A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism

Morava E, Wevers RA, Cantagrel V, Hoefsloot LH, Al-Gazali L, Schoots J, van Rooij A, Huijben K, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Jongmans MC, Sykut-Cegielska J, Hoffmann GF, Bluemel P, Adamowicz M, van Reeuwijk J, Ng BG, Bergman JE, van Bokhoven H, Korner C, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, Willemsen MA, Gleeson JG, Lehle L, de Brouwer AP, Lefeber DJ. A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism. Brain. 2010 Nov;133(11):3210-20.

PubMed ID: 
20852264

SRD5A3 is required for converting polyprenol to dolichol and is mutated in a congenital glycosylation disorder

Cantagrel V, Lefeber DJ, Ng BG, Guan Z, Silhavy JL, Bielas SL, Lehle L, Hombauer H, Adamowicz M, Swiezewska E, De Brouwer AP, Bl?omel P, Sykut-Cegielska J, Houliston S, Swistun D, Ali BR, Dobyns WB, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, van Bokhoven H, Wevers RA, Raetz CR, Freeze HH, Morava E, Al-Gazali L, Gleeson JG. SRD5A3 is required for converting polyprenol to dolichol and is mutated in a congenital glycosylation disorder. Cell. 2010 Jul 23;142(2):203-17.

PubMed ID: 
20637498

Cataracts, Congenital Nuclear

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Congenital nuclear cataracts are the only ocular abnormalities in these conditions.  There may be some cortical opacifications as well.  The nuclear opacifications may not be sufficiently dense in some patients to require cataract surgery.  Nothing is known of their natural history, however.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic disease is associated with these congenital cataracts.

Genetics

All three of these nuclear cataracts are inherited in autosomal recessive patterns.  They have been reported in rare families in which the parents were consanguineous.

CATCN1 was reported in a 4-generation Pakistani family having an unknown mutation localized to 19q13.

Another congenital nuclear cataract (CATCN2) results from mutations in the CRYBB3 (22q11.23) gene reported in 2 consanguineous Pakistani families.

CATCN 3 results from mutations in CRYBB1 (22q12.1) as reported in two consanguineous Israeli Bedouin families with 14 affected individuals.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Surgical removal may be indicated if the lens opacities are visually significant.  Vision may be sufficiently impaired in some children that surgery is required before 2 years of age.

References
Article Title: 

Kahrizi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

In an Iranian family with 3 affected sibs, cataracts (not further characterized) were noted in late adolescence.  Iris colobomas, unilateral in one sib and bilateral in another, were present.

Systemic Features: 

Children have severe psychomotor delays from birth and have severe mental retardation.  Speech and normal motor function never develop fully.  Thoracic kyphosis begins in late childhood and contractures develop in the elbows and knees.  A CAT scan in one patient revealed only normal findings.  Facial features have been described as ‘coarse’ with prominent lips, broad nasal bridge, and a bulbous nose.  Some individuals with this condition have lived into the 5th decade.  Ataxia is usually present although the cerebellum may be normal on MRI.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from homozygous mutations in the SRD5A3 gene (4q12).

Kahrizi syndrome is allelic to CDG1Q, or congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq (612379), an autosomal recessive disorder with mutations in the same gene and a partially overlapping ocular phenotype.

At least 10 families have been reported with mutations in this gene considered important to glycosylation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No specific treatment is available for this condition although physical therapy and cataract surgery might be considered in specific individuals.

References
Article Title: 

SRD5A3 is required for converting polyprenol to dolichol and is mutated in a congenital glycosylation disorder

Cantagrel V, Lefeber DJ, Ng BG, Guan Z, Silhavy JL, Bielas SL, Lehle L, Hombauer H, Adamowicz M, Swiezewska E, De Brouwer AP, Bl?omel P, Sykut-Cegielska J, Houliston S, Swistun D, Ali BR, Dobyns WB, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, van Bokhoven H, Wevers RA, Raetz CR, Freeze HH, Morava E, Al-Gazali L, Gleeson JG. SRD5A3 is required for converting polyprenol to dolichol and is mutated in a congenital glycosylation disorder. Cell. 2010 Jul 23;142(2):203-17.

PubMed ID: 
20637498

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