Coloboma, Microphthalmia, Albinism, and Deafness

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A 5 year old male has been described with uveal colobomas in microphthalmic eyes plus small corneas with a pannus, dense cataracts, translucent irides, and hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes.  A brain MRI showed hypoplasia of the optic nerves and chiasm.   

A 9 month old female from another family had severe microphthalmia and small optic nerves.  The internal ocular features were not reported.

Systemic Features: 

The complete phenotype is uncertain since it is based on only two reported and unrelated individuals.  The head circumference one one patient was consistent with macrocephaly accompanied by frontal bossing, shallow orbits, preauricular pits and posteriorly rotated ears.  A skeletal survey revealed evidence for osteopetrosis.  He had a sensorineural hearing deficit said to be congenital in onset.

The other patient, a 9 month old female, belonged to another nonconsanguineous family, and had similar skeletal and craniofacial features with the addition of micrognathia and hypotonia.  Congenital neurosensory hearing loss and general lack of pigmentation were noted.

All four parents have congenital sensorineural hearing loss, blue irides and fair skin with premature graying of hair.  Four sibs in the two families have phenotypes similar to that of the parents.  Only one child, a female, had no features of the phenotype.


This condition, so far reported only in a male and a female in unrelated families, is the result of doubly heterozygous mutations in the MITF gene (3p13).  One mutation that causes Waardenburg syndrome 2  (WS2A) (193510) is combined with a dominant-negative allele (c.952_954delAGA [p.Arg318del]) to produce the phenotype.

Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

Article Title: 


George A, Zand DJ, Hufnagel RB, Sharma R, Sergeev YV, Legare JM, Rice GM, Scott Schwoerer JA, Rius M, Tetri L, Gamm DM, Bharti K, Brooks BP. Biallelic Mutations in MITF Cause Coloboma, Osteopetrosis, Microphthalmia, Macrocephaly, Albinism, and Deafness. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Dec 1;99(6):1388-1394.

PubMedID: 27889061