Chondrodysplasia Punctata 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Early onset cataracts, often sectorial, are the major ocular feature of this syndrome.  Micropthalmia and microcornea have been observed.  There may be local vitreoretinal abnormalities leading to localized detachments and retinoschisis.

Systemic Features: 

The cartilage disease in this disorder leads to short stature that is often asymmetrical.  There is considerable variation in skeletal manifestations as the spine as well as the limbs can be involved.  The skin at birth may be scaly and erythrodermic.  Later the skin pigmentation may assume a whorled pattern and hyperkeratosis appears, often in a segmental pattern consistent with X-chromosomal mosaicism.  The skin may also be ichthyotic.  The nasal bridge is often flat with frontal bossing.  Flexion contractures are sometimes seen.  Cicatricial alopecia and coarse hair are often noted in adults.


A number of skeletal disorders are classified as chondrodysplasia punctata, and there is considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity (see also rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata [215100] in this database for an autosomal recessive form) which has yet to be worked out.  The disorder described here is an X-linked dominant disorder with lethality in males.  It results from a mutation in the EBP gene (Xp11.23-p11.22) causing difficulty in converting lanosterol to cholesterol.  The diagnosis can be confirmed by finding increased plasma accumulation of precursors of sterols 8(9)-cholestenol and 8-dehydrocholesterol. Rare severely affected males with hypotonia, seizures, cerebellar atrophy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and developmental delays have been reported. 

The X-linked recessive (CDPX1;302950), autosomal dominant tibia-metacarpal (118651), and humero-metacarpal types are not associated with cataracts.

Treatment Options: 

Cataract extraction may improve vision.  Sun protection is advised.

Article Title: 


Ausavarat S, Tanpaiboon P, Tongkobpetch S, Suphapeetiporn K, Shotelersuk V. Two novel EBP mutations in Conradi-H?onermann-Happle syndrome. Eur J Dermatol. 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):391-3.

PubMedID: 18573709

Kalter DC, Atherton DJ, Clayton PT. X-linked dominant Conradi-H?onermann syndrome presenting as congenital erythroderma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989 Aug;21(2 Pt 1):248-56.

PubMedID: 2527874

Happle R. X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. Review of literature and report of a case. Hum Genet. 1979;53(1):65-73.

PubMedID: 535904