angle anomalies


Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a disorder of the cornea and anterior chamber that is sometimes considered to be a form of anterior segment or mesenchymal dysgenesis.  The primary feature is corneal clouding, most prominent peripherally and extending to the central cornea to a variable extent.  Vascular arcades are usually present over the area of clouding and there is no clear limbal demarcation.  Corneal fibers are often disorganized and larger than normal.  The anterior chamber may appear shallow and the iris usually has a flat appearance, often with a posterior embryotoxon.  Iris processes to the cornea and anterior synechiae are frequently present.  Some degree of microcornea has also been noted in many cases.  Rotary and horizontal nystagmus are uncommon. Sclerocornea may be a feature of cornea plana as well and the distinction between these disorders is unclear, especially in reported dominant pedigrees in which hyperopia is a feature.

Most cases are bilateral but there is often considerable asymmetry between the two eyes.  Visual acuity is dependent on the extent of corneal opacification but may be normal.  It is not a progressive disease.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.  However, sclerocornea can be a feature of numerous somatic and chromosomal disorders (e.g., oculocerbral syndrome with hypopigmentation (257800 ).


No DNA mutations have as yet been found.  Most cases occur sporadically, and others are part of anterior chamber dysgenesis disorders.  However, rare autosomal dominant pedigrees have been reported in which the degree of opacification and anterior chamber anomalies are not as severe as those in which the pattern is most consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment Options: 

Severe cases in which the central media is compromised may require corneal transplantation.  Glaucoma requires treatment as well.

Article Title: 

A review of anterior

Idrees F, Vaideanu D, Fraser SG, Sowden JC, Khaw PT. A review of anterior
segment dysgeneses.
Surv Ophthalmol. 2006 May-Jun;51(3):213-31. Review.

PubMed ID: 

Hereditary sclerocornea

Elliott JH, Feman SS, O'Day DM, Garber M. Hereditary sclerocornea. Arch
Ophthalmol. 1985 May;103(5):676-9.

PubMed ID: 
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