Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The extensive dysplasia of the facial bones involves those of the orbital rims and zygomatic arches.  The orbital rims can be malformed and there is often a broad depression at the inferolateral region of the eyes.  Hypoplasia or even aplasia of the eyelids maybe present and some individuals have colobomas of the lower eyelids.  The lacrimal punctae may be temporally displaced.  The eyebrows and eyelashes are often sparse as part of the generalized alopecia.

Systemic Features: 

This is a disorder of craniofacial development resulting in extensive malformations of facial bones and skin.  Different rates of development among these structures leads to facial asymmetry in many patients. Maxillary, zygomatic arch, and mandibular bones are dysplastic resulting in micrognathia and a flat midface.   The temporomandibular joints are absent and the external ear canals are often incompletely formed.  Conductive hearing loss is common with hypoplastic ossicular chains while the pinnae are low-set, crumpled and abnormally cupped.  There may be preauricular tags or pits present.  Tooth eruption is often delayed and there may be agenesis of many permanent teeth.  The maxillary sinuses may be absent.  Cleft palate is often present.


Heterozygous mutations in the EDNRA gene (4q31) are responsible for this condition.  No familial cases have been reported and it can be assumed that the mutations arise de novo. 

Autosomal dominant
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the overall condition but individual anomalies such as the colobomas, dental deformities and cleft palate may be surgically repaired.  Upper airway obstruction may require tracheostomy in infants.

Article Title: 

Mutations in the endothelin receptor type A cause mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia

Gordon CT, Weaver KN, Zechi-Ceide RM, Madsen EC, Tavares AL, Oufadem M, Kurihara Y, Adameyko I, Picard A, Breton S, Pierrot S, Biosse-Duplan M, Voisin N, Masson C, Bole-Feysot C, Nitschke P, Delrue MA, Lacombe D, Guion-Almeida ML, Moura PP, Garib DG, Munnich A, Ernfors P, Hufnagel RB, Hopkin RJ, Kurihara H, Saal HM, Weaver DD, Katsanis N, Lyonnet S, Golzio C, Clouthier DE, Amiel J. Mutations in the endothelin receptor type A cause mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Apr 2;96(4):519-31.

PubMed ID: 
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