congenital cardiac defects

Mowat-Wilson Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most reports of Mowat-Wilson disorders provide only incomplete ocular findings and the full phenotype remains to be described.  Most of the reported findings are part of the facial phenotype, such as downward slanting palpebral fissures, and 'wedge-shaped' eyebrows with the medial portion visibly wider than the temporal region.  Hypertelorism, strabismus and telecanthus have also been noted.  However, optic nerve atrophyor aplasia, RPE atrophy, microphthalmia, ptosis, and cataracts are sometimes present while strabismus is more common.  Iris and other uveal colobomas may be present and at least one patient has been reported with retinal aplasia.  There may be considerable asymmetry in the features among the two eyes.

Systemic Features: 

This is a highly complex dysmorphic developmental disorder with unusual progression of facial features.  Birth weight and length are usually normal but later there is general somatic and mental growth delay with microcephaly (pre- and post natal), short stature, intellectual disability, and epilepsy (70%).  Hypotonia has been noted at birth.  A significant proportion (~50%) of patients have Hirschsprung disease with megacolon.  Congenital heart defects are common, many involving septal openings.  Hypospadias is often present with or without other genitourinary anomalies.  Teeth are often crowded and crooked.  The earlobes may be flattened and may have a central depression.

The facial features are present in early childhood but as they mature the upper half of the nasal profile becomes convex, while the nasal tip becomes longer and overhangs the philtrum.  The eyes appear more deeply set.  The chin lengthens and prognathism becomes apparent.  IQ levels cannot be determined but many individuals exhibit behavioral or emotional disturbances.


Heterozygous mutations in ZEB2 (2q22.3) are responsible for most cases (81%) of this disorder.  A large number of molecular mutations, many of the nonsense type, have been reported. About 2-4% of patients have cytogenetic alterations involving the 2q22 region.

Another disorder with microcephaly, intellectual disability and Hirschsprung disease is Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (609460) with mutations in the KIAA1279 gene.

Autosomal dominant
Treatment Options: 

Treatment may be directed at specific defects but there is no treatment for the general disorder. Individuals can live to adulthood. Treatment is largely symptomatic.  Physical and speech treatment can be helpful if initiated early.

Article Title: 

Phenotype and genotype of 87 patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome and

Ivanovski I, Djuric O, Caraffi SG, Santodirocco D, Pollazzon M, Rosato S,
Cordelli DM, Abdalla E, Accorsi P, Adam MP, Ajmone PF, Badura-Stronka M, Baldo C,
Baldi M, Bayat A, Bigoni S, Bonvicini F, Breckpot J, Callewaert B, Cocchi G,
Cuturilo G, De Brasi D, Devriendt K, Dinulos MB, Hjortshoj TD, Epifanio R,
Faravelli F, Fiumara A, Formisano D, Giordano L, Grasso M, Gronborg S, Iodice A,
Iughetti L, Kuburovic V, Kutkowska-Kazmierczak A, Lacombe D, Lo Rizzo C, Luchetti
A, Malbora B, Mammi I, Mari F, Montorsi G, Moutton S, Moller RS, Muschke P,
Nielsen JEK, Obersztyn E, Pantaleoni C, Pellicciari A, Pisanti MA, Prpic I,
Poch-Olive ML, Raviglione F, Renieri A, Ricci E, Rivieri F, Santen GW, Savasta S,
Scarano G, Schanze I, Selicorni A, Silengo M, Smigiel R, Spaccini L, Sorge G,
Szczaluba K, Tarani L, Tone LG, Toutain A, Trimouille A, Valera ET, Vergano SS,
Zanotta N, Zenker M, Conidi A, Zollino M, Rauch A, Zweier C, Garavelli L.
Phenotype and genotype of 87 patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome and
recommendations for care
. Genet Med. 2018 Jan 4. doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.221. [Epub
ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 

Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Bourchany A, Giurgea I, Thevenon J, Goldenberg A, Morin G, Bremond-Gignac D, Paillot C, Lafontaine PO, Thouvenin D, Massy J, Duncombe A, Thauvin-Robinet C, Masurel-Paulet A, Chehadeh SE, Huet F, Bron A, Creuzot-Garcher C, Lyonnet S, Faivre L. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 

The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Evans E, Einfeld S, Mowat D, Taffe J, Tonge B, Wilson M. The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Feb;158A(2):358-66. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34405.

PubMed ID: 

Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature

Garavelli L, Zollino M, Mainardi PC, Gurrieri F, Rivieri F, Soli F, Verri R, Albertini E, Favaron E, Zignani M, Orteschi D, Bianchi P, Faravelli F, Forzano F, Seri M, Wischmeijer A, Turchetti D, Pompilii E, Gnoli M, Cocchi G, Mazzanti L, Bergamaschi R, De Brasi D, Sperandeo MP, Mari F, Uliana V, Mostardini R, Cecconi M, Grasso M, Sassi S, Sebastio G, Renieri A, Silengo M, Bernasconi S, Wakamatsu N, Neri G. Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):417-26. Review.

PubMed ID: 

Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Zweier C, Thiel CT, Dufke A, Crow YJ, Meinecke P, Suri M, Ala-Mello S, Beemer F, Bernasconi S, Bianchi P, Bier A, Devriendt K, Dimitrov B, Firth H, Gallagher RC, Garavelli L, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Hudgins L, K?SS?SSri?SSinen H, Karstens S, Krantz I, Mannhardt A, Medne L, M?ocke J, Kibaek M, Krogh LN, Peippo M, Rittinger O, Schulz S, Schelley SL, Temple IK, Dennis NR, Van der Knaap MS, Wheeler P, Yerushalmi B, Zenker M, Seidel H, Lachmeijer A, Prescott T, Kraus C, Lowry RB, Rauch A. Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Eur J Med Genet. 2005 Apr-Jun;48(2):97-111

PubMed ID: 
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