Epileptic Encephalopathy, Early Infantile 58

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Infants are noted early to have poor fixation and visual following of targets.  Optic nerve hypoplasia is evident on brain MRIs.

Systemic Features: 

Epilepsy and development delay are hallmarks of this condition.  The seizures are of multiple types and have their onset in the first year of life.  The EEG often shows diffuse slowing, multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia.  These are often difficult to control.  Severe intellectual disability is usually present.  Feeding difficulties are evident early and slow growth is common.  Hypotonia is common but hyperreflexia and spasticity are also reported.

Brain MRIs show delayed or reduced myelination.  Acquired microcephaly is often seen.


De novo heterozygous mutations in the NTRK2 gene (9p21.33) have been found in 4 unrelated individuals.

Autosomal dominant
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

Article Title: 

High Rate of Recurrent De Novo Mutations in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies

Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Ounap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafreniere RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL. High Rate of Recurrent De Novo Mutations in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685.


PubMed ID: 
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