type IV oculocutaneous albinism

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type IV

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular manifestations in type IV oculocutaneous albinism are similar to those of other types.  Nystagmus, strabismus, misrouting of neuronal axons, and foveal hypoplasia are prominent features although there is some clinical heterogeneity among patients.  Nystagmus may not be present at birth but is almost always evident by 3-4 months of age.  The iris may be pale blue or tan and does not generally darken with age.  Poor stereopsis is common.  Vision is stable after childhood and usually in the range of 20/100-20/400. 

Systemic Features: 

Hair color is generally intermediate between white and brown but many patients have only white hair and in others the hair is brown.  Little darkening occurs as patients become older.  The skin is often white or creamy yellow. 


This type of oculocutaneous albinism is one of the more common types found among Japanese and maybe Chinese individuals although it has also been reported in German and Turkish individuals.  This is a rare autosomal recessive form of albinism caused by mutations in the MATP (SLC45A2) gene located at 5p13.3. 

A single Japanese family with 16 affected members has been reported in which the transmission pattern was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Heterozygous mutations in the SLC45A2 gene segregated appropriately.

Other types include OCA1 (203100, 606952 ), OCA2 (203200 ), OAC3 (203290), OAC5 (615179), and OCA6 (113750)..

Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the hypopigmentation.  Low vision aids and tinted lenses may help some patients.  Exposure to the sun should be limited. 

Article Title: 

Oculocutaneous albinism

Gronskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K. Oculocutaneous albinism. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Nov 2;2:43. Review.

PubMed ID: 
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