broad thumb-hallux syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

There is considerable clinical heterogeneity in this disorder.  Few patients have all of the clinical features and there is much variation in the severity of these.  Almost all segments of the eye can be involved.  The lashes are often lush and the eyebrows may be highly arched and bushy.  Lid fissures are often downward slanting (88%).  Congenital glaucoma, nystagmus, cataracts, lacrimal duct obstruction (37%), ptosis (29%), colobomas and numerous corneal abnormalities including keratoglobus, sclerocornea, and megalocornea have been reported.  Abnormal VEP waveforms and cone and cone-rod dysfunction have been found in the majority (78%) of patients tested.  Retinal pigmentary changes have been seen in some patients.  Refractive errors (usually myopia) occur in 56% of patients.  Visual acuities vary widely but about 20% of patients are visually handicapped.

Fluorescein angiography in a single patient revealed generalized vascular attenuation and extensive peripheral avascularity.  The AV transit time was prolonged with delayed venous filling and late small vessel leakage. 

Systemic Features: 

The facial features are reported to be characteristic but there are few distinctive signs.  The face is often broad and round, the nose is beaked, the mouth is small, and the lower lip appears to pout and protrudes beyond a short upper lip.  Smiles have been described as 'grimacing'.  It is common for the columella to protrude beyond the alae nasi.  The palate is narrow and highly arched and the laryngeal walls collapse easily which may lead to feeding problems and respiratory difficulties.  The ears may be rotated posteriorly.  The anterior hairline can appear low.

Among the more distinctive signs are the broad thumbs and great toes which are often deviated medially.  However, the distal phalanges of all fingers may be broad as well.  Bone fractures are common and patellar dislocations can be present as seen in the first two decades of life.  Hypotonia is a feature.  Numerous dental anomalies have been reported including crowded teeth, enamel hypoplasia, crossbite, and abnormal numbers of teeth.

Developmental delays are common.  Infancy and childhood milestones are often delayed.  Many patients have cognitive delays and some are mildly retarded.  Postnatal growth is subnormal and obesity is common.  A third of patients have a cardiac abnormality including septal defects, valvular defects, coarctation of the aorta, pulmonic stenosis, and patent ductus arteriosus.  Renal abnormalities occur frequently and almost all males have undescended testes.  Patients are at increased risk of tumors, both malignant and benign, many of which occur in the central nervous system.  Other problems are constipation and hearing loss.


Evidence points to an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance secondary to mutations in CREBBP (16p13.3) but there is some genetic heterogeneity as mutations in EP300 (22q13) have been associated with a similar disease (see Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 2; 613684).

Autosomal dominant
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at specific clinical features such as glaucoma and strabismus.  Special education and vocational training may be helpful.  Hearing loss may respond to standard treatment.  Fractures and dislocations should receive prompt attention.  Cardiac anomalies may require surgical correction.

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