Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Type VIA

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The globe is thin and fragile and ruptures easily.  This results from scleral fragility which is in contrast to type VIB EDS  (229200) in which the cornea seems to be more fragile.  Retinal detachment is always a risk but no quantitative assessment can be made since early case reports did not always provide good classification of EDS types.  Other ocular abnormalities such as keratoconus and structural changes in the cornea are less common but frequent changes in classification and lack of genotyping in early cases make definitive clinical correlations difficult.

Systemic Features: 

The primary clinical manifestations of this form (VIA) of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are extraocular.   The skin is soft, thin, easily extensible, and bruises easily.  The joints are highly flexible with a tendency to dislocate.  Arterial ruptures are not uncommon, often with severe consequences.  Scoliosis begins almost at birth and often progresses to severe kyphoscoliosis.  Patients are floppy (hypotonic).  Intellect is normal and there are generally no developmental delays.  Thirty per cent of infants have a club foot at birth.

Genetics

This an autosomal recessive disorder caused by molecular defects in the PLOD1 gene (1p36.3-p36.2).  The gene product is an enzyme, lysyl hydroxylase 1, important for the normal crosslinking of collagen. Mutations in PLOD1 may result in hydroxylase dysfunction with abnormal hydroxylation of lysine, weakened crosslinks, and fragile tissue.  

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Joint dislocations, ocular trauma and vascular ruptures require prompt attention.  Longevity is not impacted by this syndrome.

References
Article Title: 

References

Giunta C, Randolph A, Steinmann B. Mutation analysis of the PLOD1 gene: an efficient multistep approach to the molecular diagnosis of the kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS VIA). Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Sep-Oct;86(1-2):269-76.

PubMedID: 15979919

Wenstrup RJ, Murad S, Pinnell SR. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI: clinical manifestations of collagen lysyl hydroxylase deficiency. J Pediatr. 1989 Sep;115(3):405-9.

PubMedID: 2504907