nystagmus

Retinitis Pigmentosa, Deafness, Mental Retardation and Hypogonadism

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Only two families with this presumed disorder have been reported.  The retinal picture resembles retinitis pigmentosa with ‘bone spicule’ pigment clumps, vascular attenuation, and pale optic nerve heads.  Cataracts and nystagmus have been observed.  Vision is usually limited to light perception by the middle of the first decade of life.

Systemic Features: 

Small testes and gynecomastia are found in males while females have oligo- or amenorrhea.  The hands and feet appear broad and the face has a coarse appearance with a depressed nasal bridge and a broad nose.  Insulin-resistant diabetes and hyperinsulinemia are present.  Acanthosis nigricans, keloids, obesity, and hearing loss are also features.  All patients have significant developmental delays and evident mental retardation.

Genetics

No locus has been identified although autosomal recessive inheritance seems likely: the parents in one family were first cousins and there was no parent to child transmission.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no effective treatment although cataract surgery might be considered if lens opacities are visually significant.

References
Article Title: 

Gaze Palsy, Familial Horizontal, with Progressive Scoliosis 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Horizontal ophthalmoplegia is the ocular hallmark of this condition.  It is often present at birth with complete lack of horizontal gaze but in other individuals develops sometime in the first decade of life.  Horizontal smooth pursuit, saccades, optokinetic nystagmus, and vestibuloocular responses are lacking.  Vertical pursuit movements are usually intact except for smooth pursuit which is often saccadic.  Pendular nystagmus (usually horizontal) may be present and head shaking accompanies the nystagmus in some patients.  Many patients are orthophoric but some have a mild esotropia and/or vertical deviation.  The degree of convergence is variable.  Amblyopia does not usually occur and vision has been described as normal or near normal in spite of the presence of nystagmus.  Fusion and some degree of stereoacuity are generally present.  Compensatory head motion can effectively mask the horizontal palsy.  The ophthalmoplegia is progressive according to descriptions of some patients.

Some individuals are considered to have Duane retraction syndrome or congenital esotropia before the scoliosis becomes apparent.

Systemic Features: 

Progressive thoracolumbar scoliosis begins early in the first decade of life and may be evident by 2 years of life.  MRI reveals hypoplasia of the pons and cerebellar peduncles and electrophysiology studies provides evidence of abnormal (uncrossed) corticospinal and dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathways.  Cranial nerves VI and III seem to be intact.

Neuroimaging in some patients reveals medullary and pontine atrophy with hypoplasia of facial colliculi.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the ROBO3 gene (11q24.2) are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder.  The ROBO3 protein product is important for normal midline axon crossing in the brainstem. Consanguinity is common among parents.

see Gaze Palsy, Familial Horizontal, with Progressive Scoliosis 2 (617542) for another condition with somewhat similar features.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Scoliosis may require surgical stabilization.  Physical therapy can be beneficial.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in a human ROBO gene disrupt hindbrain axon pathway crossing and morphogenesis

Jen JC, Chan WM, Bosley TM, Wan J, Carr JR, R?ob U, Shattuck D, Salamon G, Kudo LC, Ou J, Lin DD, Salih MA, Kansu T, Al Dhalaan H, Al Zayed Z, MacDonald DB, Stigsby B, Plaitakis A, Dretakis EK, Gottlob I, Pieh C, Traboulsi EI, Wang Q, Wang L, Andrews C, Yamada K, Demer JL, Karim S, Alger JR, Geschwind DH, Deller T, Sicotte NL, Nelson SF, Baloh RW, Engle EC. Mutations in a human ROBO gene disrupt hindbrain axon pathway crossing and morphogenesis. Science. 2004 Jun 4;304(5676):1509-13.

PubMed ID: 
15105459

Révész Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is likely a severe form of dyskeratosis congenita with an exudative retinopathy in addition to the usual lid deformities, corneal opacification, conjunctival scarring.  The exudates are often present in early childhood, and may be of sufficient volume to present as leukocoria mimicking a retrolental mass.  The exudates extend through nearly all layers of the retina and are said to resemble Coats retinopathy. Vitreous hemorrhage and opacification has also been reported.  Severe vision loss and blindness may occur depending on the degree of retinal and vitreous disease.

Systemic Features: 

Patients with Revesz syndrome have cerebral calcifications, and hypoplasia of the cerebellum in addition to mild signs of dyskeratosis congenita such as a reticulated skin pattern, nail dysplasia, and oral leukoplakia.  Ataxia is a prominent sign but is not present in all patients.  Bone marrow failure with pancytopenia and a high risk of malignancies, however, are serious problems.  Aplastic anemia and neutropenia may present in early childhood while other signs may not appear until late childhood.  Sparse hair, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight are also features.   

Few patients with Revesz syndrome have been reported and the clinical features have not been fully delineated.  It is important to note that there is a large amount of clinical variation among patients.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the TINF2 gene (14q12) have been found in Revesz syndrome.  Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the autosomal dominant form of dyskeratosis congenita (613990) suggesting that the two disorders, if distinct, are allelic.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Bone marrow failure may respond favorably to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, at least for some time. Lifelong medical monitoring is required for the systemic and ocular disease.

References
Article Title: 

Chorioretinopathy, Ataxia, and Hypogonadism

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The retinal pigment epithelium changes may be seen as early as the first decade of life with pigment deposition resembling bone spicules.  These changes as well as atrophy of the choriocapillaris are most apparent in the posterior pole and extend into the midperiphery.  Retinal vessels may be attenuated.  Progressive loss of vision, dyschromatopsia, and photophobia are the primary ocular symptoms. Night blindness and constricted visual fields are noted by some patients.  The ERG shows subnormal and sometimes absent photopic and scotopic responses.  Nystagmus is present in more than half of individuals. 

Systemic Features: 

Difficulties with balance, intention tremors, and scanning speech are evident in adolescence or early adult life.  Cerebellar ataxia is present in nearly 40 percent of individuals.  However, there is marked variability in the rate of progression.  Many patients have atrophy of the superior and dorsal areas of the cerebellar vermis and atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres as noted on MRIs. Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is a feature with delayed puberty noted in 26 percent.  In the absence of exogenous hormone administration, secondary sexual characteristics fail to develop.

Genetics

Autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested on the basis of consanguinity in three families, multiple affected sibs born to normal parents, and a 1:1 sex ratio.  Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in PNPLA6 (19p13.2) have been found in several patients.

Mutations in PNPLA6 occur in other conditions including a form of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (209900), and Trichomegaly Plus Syndrome (275400), in this database.

 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The use of appropriate hormones can stimulate the development of normal secondary sexual characteristics and may restore reproductive function.   At least two female patients gave birth to a child following hormone substitution.

Low vision aids could be helpful in selected patients.

References
Article Title: 

Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome: cerebellar degeneration, chorioretinal dystrophy and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: two novel cases and a review of 40 cases from the literature

Tarnutzer AA, Gerth-Kahlert C, Timmann D, Chang DI, Harmuth F, Bauer P, Straumann D, Synofzik M. Boucher-Neuhauser syndrome: cerebellar degeneration, chorioretinal dystrophy and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: two novel cases and a review of 40 cases from the literature. J Neurol. 2014 Oct 31. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
25359264

PNPLA6 mutations cause Boucher-Neuhauser and Gordon Holmes syndromes as part of a broad neurodegenerative spectrum

Synofzik M, Gonzalez MA, Lourenco CM, Coutelier M, Haack TB, Rebelo A, Hannequin D, Strom TM, Prokisch H, Kernstock C, Durr A, Schols L, Lima-Martinez MM, Farooq A, Schule R, Stevanin G, Marques W Jr, Zuchner S. PNPLA6 mutations cause Boucher-Neuhauser and Gordon Holmes syndromes as part of a broad neurodegenerative spectrum. Brain. 2013 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24355708

Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Persistence and hyperplasia of the embryonic vitreous in most individuals results in significant ocular morbidity.  It results from a transcription factor deficiency in retinal ganglion cells which in turn negatively impacts development of the retinal vasculature.  As a consequence, the fetal hyaloid vasculature fails to regress and its persistence leads to a retrolental mass.

PHPV usually occurs unilaterally and affected eyes are generally blind from birth. Leukocoria secondary to the presence of a retrolental fibrovascular stalk is easily visible.  Nystagmus is frequently present and some patients have microphthalmos. The anterior segment may also be involved as evidenced by the presence of peripheral anterior synechiae, corneal opacities, cataracts, and glaucoma.  Contracture of the retrolental tissue In the posterior chamber results in the ciliary processes being pulled centrally and can lead to hemorrhage and retinal detachment. 

The clinical manifestations can make it difficult to distinguish from Norrie disease.

Systemic Features: 

No consistent systemic signs have been reported in PHPV individuals.

Genetics

The majority of PHPV cases occur sporadically, but families with transmission patterns compatible with both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns have been reported.

A six-generation family has been reported in which affected members had homozygous mutations in ATOH7 (10q21.3).  Based on mouse studies, this gene is expressed in the developing optic cup at the time that coincides with retinal ganglion cell formation.  Mice with absence of functioning Atoh7 lack retinal ganglion cells and optic nerves and develop PHPV.

A single family with presumed bilateral PHPV in 3 generations in a pattern consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported (611308).  However, no genotyping was reported and only the proband and his father had ophthalmologic examinations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No medical or surgical treatment is effective.  The majority of individuals have no light perception.

References
Article Title: 

Foveal Hypoplasia and Anterior Chamber Dysgenesis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a congenital disorder with poor vision (20/120-20/400) and nystagmus from birth according to family history.  Three of five patients in one family had a posterior embryotoxon and two had Axenfeld anomaly.  No glaucoma was present although no individuals were older than 15 years of age at the time of examination.  The foveal reflex was absent and there was a poorly defined foveal avascular zone with no distinction of the foveomacular area.   Reduced ERG amplitudes and similar VEP responses were found in 4 affected individuals but these recordings were normal in the parents.  Chiasmal misrouting has been reported in two affected members of one family.  The combination of foveal hypoplasia and decussation defects is characteristic of disorders of pigmentation (albinism) but no iris defects or other evidence of pigmentary anomalies have been found in this condition of foveal hypoplasia.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities were described.

Genetics

Consanguinity has been reported.  A region containing 33 genes at 16q23.2-24.2 co-segregates with the disorder but no mutation has been identified.  Mutations in FOXC2 and PAX6 (that code for transcription factors) have been specifically ruled out in selected families.  However, the phenotype is consistent with dysfunction of some other as yet unidentified transcription control factor or promotor region.    

An autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat similar features known as anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis (107250) has been described but its unique status remains to be established.  Foveal hypoplasia has not been reported but an associated mutation in FOXE3 could be responsible. 

Isolated foveal hypoplasia without anterior chamber malformations (136520) has been reported among families of Jewish Indian ancestry in which homozygous mutations SLC38A8 cosegregated.

With the widespread utilization of OCT measurements, it has become apparent that underdevelopment of the fovea can be a feature of numerous ocular disorders (more than 20 in this database).  In most conditions, the foveal dysplasia is part of a disease complex as in this condition. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

None known.

References
Article Title: 

A new recessively inherited disorder composed of foveal hypoplasia, optic nerve decussation defects and anterior segment dysgenesis maps to chromosome 16q23.3-24.1

Al-Araimi M, Pal B, Poulter JA, van Genderen MM, Carr I, Cudrnak T, Brown L, Sheridan E, Mohamed MD, Bradbury J, Ali M, Inglehearn CF, Toomes C. A new recessively inherited disorder composed of foveal hypoplasia, optic nerve decussation defects and anterior segment dysgenesis maps to chromosome 16q23.3-24.1. Mol Vis. 2013 Nov 1;19:2165-72. PubMed PMID: 24194637;

PubMed ID: 
24194637

Spastic Ataxia, Optic Atrophy, Mental Retardation

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is generally but not always present.  Internuclear ophthalmoplegia and nystagmus have been reported. 

Systemic Features: 

This progressive neurodegenerative disorder has its onset in early childhood with delayed psychomotor development, spastic ataxia of the limbs, and dysarthria.  Tremor, dysmetria, and poor coordination of fine movements are often present.  A sensorineural hearing loss has been found in several individuals.  Peripheral neuropathy has been reported as well.  The nature and degree of cognitive impairment has not been quantified.

Genetics

The presence of consanguinity in one family and affected sibs in another suggest autosomal recessive inheritance but nothing is known about the genotype.  The signs and symptoms resemble those found in other spastic ataxias and this may not be a unique disorder.

Optic atrophy is also found in autosomal recessive SPAX4 (613672) and in autosomal dominant SPAX7 (108650).      

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Spastic Ataxia 6, Charlevoix-Saguenay Type

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patches of myelinated axons from retinal neurons in the retina are not unusual in the general population but are especially prominent among families in Canada with SPAX6.  These typically appear as striated white or yellowish-white patches with 'fuzzy' borders in the nerve fiber layer of the retina and radiate from the disc.   These findings are usually of no functional significance but if sufficiently large and dense can be demonstrated on perimetry as small scotomas.   OCT studies in two Belgian families have revealed increased thickness of the peri-papillary retinal nerve fiber layer in both patients and carriers without clinical evidence of myelination.  In addition the retinal nerve fiber layer has been described as 'hypertrophied' outside the areas of myelination.   Horizontal gaze nystagmus and deficits in conjugate pursuit movements are often present.   

Systemic Features: 

This neurodegenerative disorder begins in early childhood (12-18 months) with signs of cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy.  Slightly older children develop a mixed-sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Dysarthria, limb spasticity, distal muscle wasting, and mitral valve prolapse are often present.  Knee reflexes are exaggerated while ankle reflexes are often absent.  Extensor plantar responses are usually present.  The EMG can show signs of denervation with slowed conduction while brain neuroimaging demonstrates regional atrophy in the cerebellum, especially the superior vermis.  Most patients eventually become wheelchair-bound.  However, cognitive and daily living skills are preserved into adulthood.  Most patients live into the sixth decade.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the SACS gene (13q12.12) are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder.

The largest number of cases is found in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Quebec, Canada among the descendents of a founder but families have also been found in Asia and Europe.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disease is available but specific therapies for some functions such as urinary urgency are available.  Physical and speech therapy as well as special education assistance can be helpful for adaptation.

References
Article Title: 

Location score and haplotype analyses of the locus for autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, in chromosome region 13q11

Richter A, Rioux JD, Bouchard JP, Mercier J, Mathieu J, Ge B, Poirier J, Julien D, Gyapay G, Weissenbach J, Hudson TJ, Melan?sson SB, Morgan K. Location score and haplotype analyses of the locus for autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, in chromosome region 13q11. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Mar;64(3):768-75. Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet 1999 Apr;64(4):1257.

PubMed ID: 
10053011

Spastic Ataxia 4, mtPAP Deficiency

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular examinations in 4 adult individuals of a single family aged 18 to 27 years were reported to have optic atrophy.  One of these had a horizontal nystagmus and another was described as having a vertical nystagmus.  No ocular evaluations were available for 2 children, aged 2 and 6 years.  Visual acuity testing was not reported but all individuals participated appropriately in family and educational activities. 

Systemic Features: 

This is a congenital disorder with cerebral ataxia (limb and truncal), spastic paraparesis (increased lower limb tone with brisk knee jerks and extensor plantar responses), cerebellar and spastic dysarthria, learning difficulties and emotional lability as prominent features.  The onset of both speech and mobility are delayed.  Older individuals have slow and spastic tongue movements with brisk jaw jerks, and increased tone in the upper limbs.  Motor function progressively declines although even older individuals in the third decade of life remain mobile albeit with an increasingly spastic and ataxic gait, and require only minimal assistance with self-care.  Children in grade school require special education accommodations but there is no obvious deterioration in intellectual function as they mature.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from homozygous mutations in the MTPAP gene (10p11.22).  The mutation leads to a defect of mitochondrial mRNA maturation in which the poly(A) tails are severely truncated.

Optic atrophy is also present in some patients who have autosomal dominant spastic ataxia with miosis (SPAX7) (108650) and in another form of autosomal recessive childhood-onset spastic ataxia and mental retardation (270500).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known but special education and physical and speech therapy may be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Defective mitochondrial mRNA maturation is associated with spastic ataxia

Crosby AH, Patel H, Chioza BA, Proukakis C, Gurtz K, Patton MA, Sharifi R, Harlalka G, Simpson MA, Dick K, Reed JA, Al-Memar A, Chrzanowska-Lightowlers ZM, Cross HE, Lightowlers RN. Defective mitochondrial mRNA maturation is associated with spastic ataxia. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Nov 12;87(5):655-60.

PubMed ID: 
20970105

Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, CSNB1E

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Night blindness is a feature of many pigmentary and other retinal disorders, most of which are progressive.  However, there is also a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders, with generally stable scotopic defects and without RPE changes, known as congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB).  At least 10 mutant genes are responsible with phenotypes so similar that genotyping is usually necessary to distinguish them.  All are caused by defects in visual signal transduction within rod photoreceptors or defective photoreceptor-to-bipolar cell signaling with common ERG findings of reduced or absent b-waves and generally normal a-waves.  The photopic ERG is usually abnormal to some degree as well and visual acuity may be subnormal.  In the pregenomic era, subtleties of ERG responses were frequently used in an attempt to distinguish different forms of CSNB.  Genotyping now enables classification with unprecedented precision.

The onset of night blindness in type 1E occurs in early childhood and may be congenital.  Some degree of nystagmus is usually present.  It is usually only slowly progressive.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic disease is associated with congenital stationary night blindness.

Genetics

This type of congenital stationary night blindness is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern resulting from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in GPR179.  The gene encodes an orphan G protein receptor.

Other autosomal recessive CSNB disorders are: CSNB2B (610427), CSNB1B (257270), and CSNB1C (613216).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment beyond correction of the refractive error is available but tinted lenses are sometimes used to enhance vision.

References
Article Title: 

Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutations in GPR179 Leading to Autosomal-Recessive Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

Audo I, Bujakowska K, Orhan E, Poloschek CM, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Drumare I, Kohl S, Luu TD, Lecompte O, Zrenner E, Lancelot ME, Antonio A, Germain A, Michiels C, Audier C, Letexier M, Saraiva JP, Leroy BP, Munier FL, Mohand-Sa?Od S, Lorenz B, Friedburg C, Preising M, Kellner U, Renner AB, Moskova-Doumanova V, Berger W, Wissinger B, Hamel CP, Schorderet DF, De Baere E, Sharon D, Banin E, Jacobson SG, Bonneau D, Zanlonghi X, Le Meur G, Casteels I, Koenekoop R, Long VW, Meire F, Prescott K, de Ravel T, Simmons I, Nguyen H, Dollfus H, Poch O, L?(c)veillard T, Nguyen-Ba-Charvet K, Sahel JA, Bhattacharya SS, Zeitz C. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutations in GPR179 Leading to Autosomal-Recessive Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10;90(2):321-30.

PubMed ID: 
22325361

GPR179 Is Required for Depolarizing Bipolar Cell Function and Is Mutated in Autosomal-Recessive Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

Peachey NS, Ray TA, Florijn R, Rowe LB, Sjoerdsma T, Contreras-Alcantara S, Baba K, Tosini G, Pozdeyev N, Iuvone PM, Bojang P Jr, Pearring JN, Simonsz HJ, van Genderen M, Birch DG, Traboulsi EI, Dorfman A, Lopez I, Ren H, Goldberg AF, Nishina PM, Lachapelle P, McCall MA, Koenekoop RK, Bergen AA, Kamermans M, Gregg RG. GPR179 Is Required for Depolarizing Bipolar Cell Function and Is Mutated in Autosomal-Recessive Complete Congenital Stationary Night Blindness. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Feb 10;90(2):331-9.

PubMed ID: 
22325362

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