optic atrophy

Spastic Paraplegia 5A

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Gaze-evoked nystagmus and saccadic pursuit movements are present in about 10% of patients.  Optic atrophy was reported in one individual.  Rare patients have been reported to have cataracts.  

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive disorder of neurological deterioration.  Age of onset (mean 16.4 years) and rate of neurological dysfunction are highly variable.  Gait difficulties are the most common presenting signs.  Some gait ataxia is usually present.  The lower limbs are more severely affected by spasticity and weakness and walking is often delayed with difficulty running and clumsiness in childhood.  Some patients (38%) are wheelchair-bound after disease duration of more than 33 years.  Dysphagia and dysarthria are uncommon. 

Some sensory impairments such as impaired vibratory sense, decreased proprioception, and absent touch sensation in the lower extremities are frequently present.  Urge incontinence of bladder and rectum is sometimes a feature.

Genetics

Bialllelic mutations in the CYP7B1 gene (8q12.3) have been identified in this disorder resulting in a marked accumulation of neurotoxic oxysterols in plasma and CSF.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment for the general disorder has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5: natural history, biomarkers and a randomized controlled trial

Schols L, Rattay TW, Martus P, Meisner C, Baets J, Fischer I, Jagle C, Fraidakis MJ, Martinuzzi A, Saute JA, Scarlato M, Antenora A, Stendel C, Hoflinger P, Lourenco CM, Abreu L, Smets K, Paucar M, Deconinck T, Bis DM, Wiethoff S, Bauer P, Arnoldi A, Marques W, Jardim LB, Hauser S, Criscuolo C, Filla A, Zuchner S, Bassi MT, Klopstock T, De Jonghe P, Bjorkhem I, Schule R. Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5: natural history, biomarkers and a randomized controlled trial. Brain. 2017 Dec 1;140(12):3112-3127.

PubMed ID: 
29126212

CYP7B1 mutations in pure and complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5

Goizet C, Boukhris A, Durr A, Beetz C, Truchetto J, Tesson C, Tsaousidou M, Forlani S, Guyant-Marechal L, Fontaine B, Guimaraes J, Isidor B, Chazouilleres O, Wendum D, Grid D, Chevy F, Chinnery PF, Coutinho P, Azulay JP, Feki I, Mochel F, Wolf C, Mhiri C, Crosby A, Brice A, Stevanin G. CYP7B1 mutations in pure and complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia type 5. Brain. 2009 Jun;132(Pt 6):1589-600.

PubMed ID: 
19439420

Epileptic Encephalopathy, Early Infantile 58

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Infants are noted early to have poor fixation and visual following of targets.  Optic nerve hypoplasia is evident on brain MRIs.

Systemic Features: 

Epilepsy and development delay are hallmarks of this condition.  The seizures are of multiple types and have their onset in the first year of life.  The EEG often shows diffuse slowing, multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia.  These are often difficult to control.  Severe intellectual disability is usually present.  Feeding difficulties are evident early and slow growth is common.  Hypotonia is common but hyperreflexia and spasticity are also reported.

Brain MRIs show delayed or reduced myelination.  Acquired microcephaly is often seen.

Genetics

De novo heterozygous mutations in the NTRK2 gene (9p21.33) have been found in 4 unrelated individuals.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

High Rate of Recurrent De Novo Mutations in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies

Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Ounap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafreniere RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL. High Rate of Recurrent De Novo Mutations in Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathies. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685.

 

PubMed ID: 
291000083

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Decreased vision, optic atrophy, and nystagmus are frequently present.  Pupillary reflexes may be absent.

Systemic Features: 

Rapidly progressive muscle weakness and ataxia present in childhood.  Early development may be normal but the first symptoms usually appear by age 2 or 3 years of age.  Cognition is usually normal.  Exercise intolerance soon appears along with dysphonia, dyspnea, dysphagia, and weakness of shoulder, neck and axial muscles.  Wasting and weakness of hand muscles is often noticeable.  Kyphoscoliosis, tongue fasciculations, and areflexia are often seen.  Sensorineural hearing loss is a common feature.

Death from respiratory insufficiency often occurs within a few years after onset.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SLC52A2 (8q24.3) gene have been identified in patients with this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Administration of riboflavin has been reported to be beneficial in lessening symptoms.

References
Article Title: 

SLC52A2 mutations cause SCABD2 phenotype: A second report

Babanejad M, Adeli OA, Nikzat N, Beheshtian M, Azarafra H, Sadeghnia F, Mohseni M, Najmabadi H, Kahrizi K. SLC52A2 mutations cause SCABD2 phenotype: A second report. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Jan;104:195-199.

PubMed ID: 
29287867

Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2

Foley AR, Menezes MP, Pandraud A, Gonzalez MA, Al-Odaib A, Abrams AJ, Sugano K, Yonezawa A, Manzur AY, Burns J, Hughes I, McCullagh BG, Jungbluth H, Lim MJ, Lin JP, Megarbane A, Urtizberea JA, Shah AH, Antony J, Webster R, Broomfield A, Ng J, Mathew AA, O'Byrne JJ, Forman E, Scoto M, Prasad M, O'Brien K, Olpin S, Oppenheim M, Hargreaves I, Land JM, Wang MX, Carpenter K, Horvath R, Straub V, Lek M, Gold W, Farrell MO, Brandner S, Phadke R, Matsubara K, McGarvey ML, Scherer SS, Baxter PS, King MD, Clayton P, Rahman S, Reilly MM, Ouvrier RA, Christodoulou J, Zuchner S, Muntoni F, Houlden H. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2. Brain. 2014 Jan;137(Pt 1):44-56.

PubMed ID: 
24253200

Myopathy, Mitochondrial Anomalies, and Ataxia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular findings are variable.  One of three individuals with compound heterozygous mutations had a pigmentary retinopathy with pallor of the optic nerve but no visual abnormalities.  Her sister had only optic nerve pallor.  The eyes are described as "small" and "close-set".

No ocular findings were reported for the family with autosomal dominant inheritance.

Systemic Features: 

Ataxia, short stature, and gait difficulties from an early age are consistent findings.  Some patients are never able to walk.  Motor development is generally delayed.  Truncal and limb ataxia is a feature.  Some degree of intellectual disability is generally present and speech is often delayed.  

The face is long with a myopathic appearance.  Both micrognathia and a prominent jaw may be seen.  The palate is highly arched.  Patients are described as hypotonic and there is generalized muscle weakness both proximal and distal.  Distal sensory impairment has been described in the family with presumed dominant inheritance and there may be psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia.  Dysmetria with dysdiadochokinesis is often present and a fine intention tremor has been observed.

Mitochondria in fibroblasts exhibit abnormal dynamics and occur in a fragmented network.  Muscle biopsies reveal changes consistent with myopathy.  Serum creatine kinase may be elevated.

Genetics

Compound heterozygous mutations in the MSTO1 gene (1q22) have been found in two families with 3 affected individuals suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance.  In a third family, heterozygous mutations in the same gene were found in a mother and 3 of her adult children, consistent with autosomal dominant transmission.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Retinitis Pigmentosa 81

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients often complain of night vision problems before the age of 5 years.  Fundus changes of optic nerve pallor, retinal vessel attenuation, and bone spicule pigmentary clumping in the midperiphery are evident by the third decade of life.  Progressive RPE and choroidal atrophy in the macula have been described and may be progressive.  ERG responses are absent from at least 28 years of age.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.

Genetics

One consanguineous Pakistani family containing 9 affected members with retinal degeneration has been reported.  Homozygosity of a missense mutation in the IFT43 gene (14q24.3) was found in 4 affected sibs.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

A mutation in IFT43 causes non-syndromic recessive retinal degeneration

Biswas P, Duncan JL, Ali M, Matsui H, Naeem MA, Raghavendra PB, Frazer KA, Arts HH, Riazuddin S, Akram J, Hejtmancik JF, Riazuddin SA, Ayyagari R. A mutation in IFT43 causes non-syndromic recessive retinal degeneration. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Dec 1;26(23):4741-4751.

PubMed ID: 
28973684

Neurodevelopmental Disorder, Mitochondrial, with Abnormal Movements and Lactic Acidosis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is sometimes present.  Nystagmus, and strabismus are seen in some patients.  A pigmentary retinopathy was found in one individual.

Systemic Features: 

This is a clinically heterogeneous disorder with extensive neurological deficits.  Patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties from the neonatal period.  There is intrauterine growth retardation and postnatally patients usually exhibit psychomotor delays and intellectual disabilities.  Some develop seizures and few achieve normal developmental milestones.  Axial hypotonia is present from early infancy and most patients have muscle weakness and atrophy.  However, there may be spastic quadriplegia which is often associated with dysmetria, tremor, and athetosis.  Ataxia eventually develops in most patients. 

Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, enlarged ventricles, white matter defects, and delayed myelination. 

Incomplete metabolic studies suggest there may be abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity in at least some tissues.  Most patients have an elevated serum lactate.

Death in childhood is common.

Genetics

Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the WARS2 gene have been found in several families with this condition.  The considerable variation in the phenotype may at least partially be explained by the fact that an additional variant in the W13G gene is sometimes present which impairs normal localization of the WARS2 gene product within mitochondria.

The transmission pattern in several families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition.

References
Article Title: 

Biallelic variants in WARS2 encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase in six individuals with mitochondrial encephalopathy

Wortmann SB, Timal S, Venselaar H, Wintjes LT, Kopajtich R, Feichtinger RG, Onnekink C, Muhlmeister M, Brandt U, Smeitink JA, Veltman JA, Sperl W, Lefeber D, Pruijn G, Stojanovic V, Freisinger P, V Spronsen F, Derks TG, Veenstra-Knol HE, Mayr JA, Rotig A, Tarnopolsky M, Prokisch H, Rodenburg RJ. Biallelic variants in WARS2 encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase in six individuals with mitochondrial encephalopathy. Hum Mutat. 2017 Dec;38(12):1786-1795.

PubMed ID: 
28905505

Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 32

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular signs are common but variable.  Patients may not make eye contact and sometimes have disconjugate eye movements.  Strabismus (usually exotropia) and nystagmus or often present.

Systemic Features: 

Six patients from 4 unrelated families of mixed ethnic backgrounds have been reported.  Infants within the first 4 to 6 months of life had evidence of developmental delay and neurodevelopmental regression.  Poor feeding and breathing difficulties are often noted in this period.  Other later signs are axial hypotonia, abnormal movements such as tremor, spasticity, hyperkinetic movements, dystonia with eventual regression of milestones.  Joint contractures and kyphoscoliosis may develop. 

Microcephaly was noted in several infants and brain imaging in all patients reveals abnormal T2- weighted signals in the brainstem and specifically in the basal ganglia.  Decreased activity in muscle mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, III, and IV has been documented.  Lactate may be increased in serum and the CSF.  Postmortem studies show brain vascular proliferation and gliosis in basal structures.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in MRPS34 (16p13.3) are the basis for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Biallelic Mutations in MRPS34 Lead to Instability of the Small Mitoribosomal Subunit and Leigh Syndrome

Lake NJ, Webb BD, Stroud DA, Richman TR, Ruzzenente B, Compton AG, Mountford HS, Pulman J, Zangarelli C, Rio M, Bodaert N, Assouline Z, Sherpa MD, Schadt EE, Houten SM, Byrnes J, McCormick EM, Zolkipli-Cunningham Z, Haude K, Zhang Z, Retterer K, Bai R, Calvo SE, Mootha VK, Christodoulou J, Rotig A, Filipovska A, Cristian I, Falk MJ, Metodiev MD, Thorburn DR. Biallelic Mutations in MRPS34 Lead to Instability of the Small Mitoribosomal Subunit and Leigh Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Aug 3;101(2):239-254.

PubMed ID: 
28777931

Encephalopathy, Progressive, Early-Onset, wtih Brain Atrophy and Spasticity

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy or cortical visual impairment with lack of visual tracking have been described in all patients.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly is evident at birth with global developmental delay and hearing loss.  One patient of 3 reported in 2 unrelated families had brief flexion seizures at 5 months.  Developmental regression and stagnation may become evident within the first months of life.  The EEG showed a hypsarrhythmia pattern.  Truncal hypotonia, spasticity, dystonia and/or myoclonus, scoliosis, and dysphagia are also features.  Two of the three reported patients had seizures. 

Brain MRI showed a pattern of pontine hypoplasia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, modified frontal gyri and diffuse cortical atrophy with enlarged ventricles have been described.  The cerebellum seems to be spared.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the TRAPPC12 gene (2p25.3) were found in 3 children in 2 unrelated families with this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Progressive Microcephaly, Spasticity, and Brain Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

 Examined patients have optic atrophy with nystagmus and roving eye movements.

Systemic Features: 

There are extensive and, in most cases, progressive CNS abnormalities resulting in severe neurodevelopmental deficits.  Infants at birth have progressive truncal hypotonia and limb spasticity.  Motor deficits result in little spontaneous movement, resulting in poor sucking, and respiratory difficulties.  Language does not develop and there is profound mental retardation. Progressive microcephaly is a characteristic finding.  There are often extrapyramidal signs such as rigidity and dystonic posturing.

Dysmorphic features include a short nose, high-arched palate, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears, micrognathia, postaxial polydactyly, hirsutism, pectus carinatum, contractures of large joints, and hyperextensibility of small joints.

Brain imaging shows a progressive leukoencephalopathy, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination.  The corpus callosum is often thin and the ventricles appear enlarged.  The lifespan is generally short with death occurring in infancy or early childhood.

Genetics

This autosomal recessive disorder results from homozygous mutations in the PLAA gene (9p21). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

PLAA Mutations Cause a Lethal Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy by Disrupting Ubiquitin-Mediated Endolysosomal Degradation of Synaptic Proteins

Hall EA, Nahorski MS, Murray LM, Shaheen R, Perkins E, Dissanayake KN, Kristaryanto Y, Jones RA, Vogt J, Rivagorda M, Handley MT, Mali GR, Quidwai T, Soares DC, Keighren MA, McKie L, Mort RL, Gammoh N, Garcia-Munoz A, Davey T, Vermeren M, Walsh D, Budd P, Aligianis IA, Faqeih E, Quigley AJ, Jackson IJ, Kulathu Y, Jackson M, Ribchester RR, von Kriegsheim A, Alkuraya FS, Woods CG, Maher ER, Mill P. PLAA Mutations Cause a Lethal Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy by Disrupting Ubiquitin-Mediated Endolysosomal Degradation of Synaptic Proteins. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 May 4;100(5):706-724.

PubMed ID: 
28413018

Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy

Falik Zaccai TC, Savitzki D, Zivony-Elboum Y, Vilboux T, Fitts EC, Shoval Y, Kalfon L, Samra N, Keren Z, Gross B, Chasnyk N, Straussberg R, Mullikin JC, Teer JK, Geiger D, Kornitzer D, Bitterman-Deutsch O, Samson AO, Wakamiya M, Peterson JW, Kirtley ML, Pinchuk IV, Baze WB, Gahl WA, Kleta R, Anikster Y, Chopra AK. Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy. Brain. 2017 Feb;140(Pt 2):370-386.

PubMed ID: 
28007986

PEHO-Like Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Poor visual fixation and attention has been noted during the first 6 months of life.  Optic atrophy has been described and epicanthal folds may be present.

Systemic Features: 

General hypotonia with developmental delay and progressive microcephaly are evident in the first 6-12 months of life.  Seizures may be present at birth or within the first month of life.  Edema of the feet, hands, and face are also present at birth.  Cognitive deficits and motor delays are usually evident during infancy.  The central hypotonia may be accompanied by peripheral spasticity.  Kyphoscoliosis often develops.  Other dysmorphic features include micrognathia, narrow forehead, short nose, and open mouth.

Brain imaging reveals coarse pachygyria, polymicrogyria, and dilated ventricles with hypoplastic corpus callosum and pons.  Cerebellar hypoplasia was found in one child. 

Genetics

This presumed autosomal recessive disorder is associated with homozygous mutations in the CCDC88A gene (2p16.1).  Three affected children have been reported in a consanguineous family.

A somewhat similar disorder known as PEHO syndrome (260565) results from homozygous mutations in the ZNHIT3 gene. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

The PEHO syndrome

Riikonen R. The PEHO syndrome. Brain Dev. 2001 Nov;23(7):765-9. Review.

PubMed ID: 
11701291

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