Immunodeficiency-Centromeric Instability-Facial Anomalies Syndrome 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have been described as having variable oculofacial features including epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, strabismus, and 'tapetoretinal degeneration'.    

Systemic Features: 

The full phenotype is variable and unknown based on the 5 reported patients from 4 families of whom 3 were consanguineous.  Recurrent infections (especially respiratory and otitis media) seem to be among the most consistent features.  Others include intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay including psychomotor delays, a flat midface with various anomalies, low-set ears, renal dysgenesis, polydactyly, severe agammaglobulinemia, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism.  Normal T-cell function and normal B cells are present.  Conductive hearing loss, polydactyly, and scoliosis may be features as well.  Two of the 5 reported patients with ICF3 were reported to have mental retardation.  One patient died at the age of 26 years.

Genetics

Homozygosity of CDCA7 (2q31.1) mutations with centromeric instability and hypomethylation of selected juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions is responsible for this (ICF3) autosomal recessive condition.  There is genetic heterogeneity in ICF (ICF1, ICF2, ICF3, and ICF4 [see 242860).   

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome

Thijssen PE, Ito Y, Grillo G, Wang J, Velasco G, Nitta H, Unoki M, Yoshihara M, Suyama M, Sun Y, Lemmers RJ, de Greef JC, Gennery A, Picco P, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Gungor T, Reisli I, Picard C, Kebaili K, Roquelaure B, Iwai T, Kondo I, Kubota T, van Ostaijen-Ten Dam MM, van Tol MJ, Weemaes C, Francastel C, van der Maarel SM, Sasaki H. Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 28;6:7870.

PubMed ID: 
26216346