Encephalopathy, Progressive, Early-Onset, wtih Brain Atrophy and Spasticity

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy or cortical visual impairment with lack of visual tracking have been described in all patients.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly is evident at birth with global developmental delay and hearing loss.  One patient of 3 reported in 2 unrelated families had brief flexion seizures at 5 months.  Developmental regression and stagnation may become evident within the first months of life.  The EEG showed a hypsarrhythmia pattern.  Truncal hypotonia, spasticity, dystonia and/or myoclonus, scoliosis, and dysphagia are also features.  Two of the three reported patients had seizures. 

Brain MRI showed a pattern of pontine hypoplasia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, modified frontal gyri and diffuse cortical atrophy with enlarged ventricles have been described.  The cerebellum seems to be spared.


Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the TRAPPC12 gene (2p25.3) were found in 3 children in 2 unrelated families with this disorder.

Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

Article Title: 


Milev MP, Grout ME, Saint-Dic D, Cheng YH, Glass IA, Hale CJ, Hanna DS, Dorschner MO, Prematilake K, Shaag A, Elpeleg O, Sacher M, Doherty D, Edvardson S. Mutations in TRAPPC12 Manifest in Progressive Childhood Encephalopathy and Golgi Dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Aug 3;101(2):291-299.

PubMedID: 28777934