Pierre Robin sequence

Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Abnormal eye movements with prominent external ophthalmoplegia are hallmarks of this disease.  An oculomotor nerve palsy with limited abduction and some degree of facial palsy are usually present.  The Moebius sequence is present in many patients.  Epicanthal folds, downslanting lid fissures, and ptosis are frequently seen.

Systemic Features: 

Clinical signs are highly variable.  Unusual facies with features of the Pierre Robin complex are characteristic.  Micrognathia and retrognathia are often present with glossoptosis.  Hypotonia and failure to thrive are commonly seen.  Dysphagia and even absent swallowing likely contribute to this.  Respiratory insufficiency can be present from birth, often with laryngostenosis, and some patients develop pulmonary hypertension and restrictive lung disease as adults.  Progressive scoliosis may contribute to this.  Many patients have club feet with joint contractures.  Skull formation consisting of microcephaly, or macrocephaly, or plagiocephaly is commonly seen.  Cardiac septal defects are common.

Intellectual disability is present in some but not all individuals.  Neuronal heterotopias, enlarged ventricles, reduced white matter, a small brainstem, microcalcifications, and enlarged ventricles have been observed.


Homozygous or compound heterozygosity of the MYMK gene (9q34) is responsible for this condition.  

Autosomal recessive
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.

Article Title: 

A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome

Di Gioia SA, Connors S, Matsunami N, Cannavino J, Rose MF, Gilette NM, Artoni P, de Macena Sobreira NL, Chan WM, Webb BD, Robson CD, Cheng L, Van Ryzin C, Ramirez-Martinez A, Mohassel P, Leppert M, Scholand MB, Grunseich C, Ferreira CR, Hartman T, Hayes IM, Morgan T, Markie DM, Fagiolini M, Swift A, Chines PS, Speck-Martins CE, Collins FS, Jabs EW, Bonnemann CG, Olson EN; Moebius Syndrome Research Consortium, Carey JC, Robertson SP, Manoli I, Engle EC. A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome. Nat Commun. 2017 Jul 6;8:16077. doi: 10.1038/ncomms16077.

PubMed ID: 

Möbius sequence, Robin complex, and hypotonia: severe expression of brainstem disruption spectrum versus Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome

Verloes A, Bitoun P, Heuskin A, Amrom D, van de Broeck H, Nikkel SM, Chudley AE, Prasad AN, Rusu C, Covic M, Toutain A, Moraine C, Parisi MA, Patton M, Martin JJ, Van Thienen MN. Mobius sequence, Robin complex, and hypotonia: severe expression of brainstem disruption spectrum versus Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Jun 15;127A(3):277-87.

PubMed ID: 
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