Type I Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous disorder as mutations in at least 8 genes produce a similar disease. These are: MYO7A (276900) at 11q13.5 causing USH1B (USH1A is now considered to be the same), USH1C at 11p15.1 causing USH1C (276904), CDH23 at 10q21-q22, causing USH1D (601067), PCDH15 at 10q21.1 causing USH1F (602083), and USH1G at 17q24-25 causing USH1G (606943). Mutations in as yet unnamed genes in loci at 21q21 (USH1E; 602097), 10p11.21-q21.1 (USH1K), and 15q22-q23 (USH1H; 612632) may also cause this type I phenotype. They are discussed here as a single entity designated type I since the clinical features of each are indistinguishable.'
A varant of USH1C resulting from homozygous deletions in 11p15-p14, known as homozygous 11p15-p14 deletion syndrome, has the additional feature of severe hyperinsulinemia due to the involvement of ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes (606528).
Clinical differences have led to the categorization of three types of Usher syndrome: type I described here, type II (276901) caused by mutations in at least 4 genes, and type III (276902) caused by mutations in CLRN1.