Spastic Paraplegia 46

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Congenital cataracts (not further described) have been reported in several individuals with this type of complicated spastic paraplegia.  Optic atrophy and nystagmus have not been reported.

Systemic Features: 

Stiffness and weakness of the lower limbs begins between 2 and 20 years of age.  This is slowly progressive although most individuals are still mobile with mild to moderate handicaps into the 4th decade.  The gait is spastic with weakness, hyperreflexia, and extensor plantar responses in the lower limbs.  The upper limbs are variably involved and movements are dysmetric.  Dysarthria and bladder dysfunction are often present.  Cerebellar ataxia is common and some patients first present with this as a prominent sign in the first and second decades.  Early cognitive development is normal but mild cognitive decline appears eventually.  Pes cavus and scoliosis may occur.

Brain imaging can show thinning of the corpus callosum, with mild cerebellar and cerebral atrophy.

Genetics

Linkage analysis identified a locus at 9p13.3 and sequencing confirmed homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in GBA2.  The presence of parental consanguinity in some families supports autosomal recessive inheritance.

This database contains two other types of autosomal spastic paraplegia with ocular signs: spastic paraplegia 15 (270700) with a “flecked retina”, and spastic paraplegia 7 (607259) with optic atrophy and nystagmus.  Cataracts have not been reported in these two conditions.

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known for the neurological deficits but cataract surgery may be beneficial for visually significant cataracts.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in GBA2 cause autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity

Hammer MB, Eleuch-Fayache G, Schottlaender LV, Nehdi H, Gibbs JR, Arepalli SK, Chong SB, Hernandez DG, Sailer A, Liu G, Mistry PK, Cai H, Shrader G, Sassi C, Bouhlal Y, Houlden H, Hentati F, Amouri R, Singleton AB. Mutations in GBA2 cause autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Feb 7;92(2):245-51. PubMed PMID: 23332917.

PubMed ID: 
23332917

Loss of function of glucocerebrosidase GBA2 is responsible for motor neuron defects in hereditary spastic paraplegia

Martin E, Sch?ole R, Smets K, Rastetter A, Boukhris A, Loureiro JL, Gonzalez MA, Mundwiller E, Deconinck T, Wessner M, Jornea L, Oteyza AC, Durr A, Martin JJ, Schols L, Mhiri C, Lamari F, Z?ochner S, De Jonghe P, Kabashi E, Brice A, Stevanin G. Loss of function of glucocerebrosidase GBA2 is responsible for motor neuron defects in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Feb 7;92(2):238-44. PubMed PMID: 23332916.

PubMed ID: 
23332916

A new locus (SPG46) maps to 9p21.2-q21.12 in a Tunisian family with a complicated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum

Boukhris A, Feki I, Elleuch N, Miladi MI, Boland-Aug?(c) A, Truchetto J, Mundwiller E, Jezequel N, Zelenika D, Mhiri C, Brice A, Stevanin G. A new locus (SPG46) maps to 9p21.2-q21.12 in a Tunisian family with a complicated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum. Neurogenetics. 2010 Oct;11(4):441-8.

PubMed ID: 
20593214

References

Hammer MB, Eleuch-Fayache G, Schottlaender LV, Nehdi H, Gibbs JR, Arepalli SK, Chong SB, Hernandez DG, Sailer A, Liu G, Mistry PK, Cai H, Shrader G, Sassi C, Bouhlal Y, Houlden H, Hentati F, Amouri R, Singleton AB. Mutations in GBA2 cause autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia with spasticity. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Feb 7;92(2):245-51. PubMed PMID: 23332917.

PubMedID: 23332917

Martin E, Sch?ole R, Smets K, Rastetter A, Boukhris A, Loureiro JL, Gonzalez MA, Mundwiller E, Deconinck T, Wessner M, Jornea L, Oteyza AC, Durr A, Martin JJ, Schols L, Mhiri C, Lamari F, Z?ochner S, De Jonghe P, Kabashi E, Brice A, Stevanin G. Loss of function of glucocerebrosidase GBA2 is responsible for motor neuron defects in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Feb 7;92(2):238-44. PubMed PMID: 23332916.

PubMedID: 23332916

Boukhris A, Feki I, Elleuch N, Miladi MI, Boland-Aug?(c) A, Truchetto J, Mundwiller E, Jezequel N, Zelenika D, Mhiri C, Brice A, Stevanin G. A new locus (SPG46) maps to 9p21.2-q21.12 in a Tunisian family with a complicated autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum. Neurogenetics. 2010 Oct;11(4):441-8.

PubMedID: 20593214