nystagmus

Cerebral Palsy, Spastic Quadriplegic, 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

One family with 4 affected sibs has been reported but without detailed information on ophthalmological findings.  Strabismus reported as exotropia in one individual, and "convergent retraction nystagmus" in another was present.  Supranuclear gaze palsy was described in one individual. 

Systemic Features: 

Borderline microcephaly has been reported.  Evidence for global neurologic disease, primarily spasticity, may be present as early as 3 months of age.  Intellectual disability ranges from borderline to severe.  Progression is somewhat variable but by the second decade there may be sufficient spastic quadriparesis and cognitive impairment that full time assistive care is required.  Dysarthria and dysphagia are also features and gastrostomy feeding tubes may be required to maintain nutrition.  Seizures are uncommon.

The MRI does not show major structural abnormalities and an EEG in one patient revealed only bifrontal spike-waves.

Genetics

This condition is caused by homozygous mutations in the ADD3 gene (10q24).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in gamma adducin are associated with inherited cerebral palsy

Kruer MC, Jepperson T, Dutta S, Steiner RD, Cottenie E, Sanford L, Merkens M, Russman BS, Blasco PA, Fan G, Pollock J, Green S, Woltjer RL, Mooney C, Kretzschmar D, Paisan-Ruiz C, Houlden H. Mutations in gamma adducin are associated with inherited cerebral palsy. Ann Neurol. 2013 Dec;74(6):805-14.

PubMed ID: 
23836506

Foveal Hypoplasia 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The cardinal feature in this condition is foveal hypoplasia which is characterized by the lack of a foveal depression and continuity of all neurosensory layers across the foveal area as revealed by OCT.  This is accompanied by poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and strabismus.  Hypopigmentation of the immediate area has also been reported in some patients.  Visual acuity in one study of 9 patients ranged from 20/50 to 20/200.  The ERG and flash VEP can be normal.  Color vision has been described as normal in some individuals.

Dysgenesis of the anterior segment seems to be family-specific and consists of Axenfeld anomaly or embryotoxon.

Systemic Features: 

In most cases the only features are foveal hypoplasia with or without anterior chamber anomalies.  Three affected sisters in one family were reported to have mild developmental delay.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in SLC38A8 (16q23.3) are responsible for this disorder. 

For a somewhat similar condition of foveal hypoplasia see FVH1 (136520), which is, however, caused by a different mutation and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment.

References
Article Title: 

Spinocerebellar Ataxia 42

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

 Saccadic eye movements with nystagmus and diplopia have been reported (7 of 10 reported patients).

Systemic Features: 

Cerebellar signs usually have their onset in midlife or later with slow progression.  Most patients are mildly to moderately disabled.  Dysarthria, dysphagia, and a spastic gait are experienced by the majority of individuals.  Hyperreflexia and a positive Babinski sign are commonly presently.  Mild cognitive impairment and depression have been seen in a minority of patients.

Brain MRIs show cerebellar hemispheric and vermian atrophy.  The cerebral cortex appeared histologically normal in one deceased patient.

Genetics

This disorder is caused by heterozygous mutations in the CACNA1G gene (17q21.33).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Leukodystrophy, Hypomyelinating, 13

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Several individuals in one family have been observed with optic atrophy, nystagmus and visual impairment.

Systemic Features: 

Head circumference is normal at birth but later in childhood falls behind in growth.  Neurodevelopment seems to plateau without regression.  Feeding difficulties may be present from birth and may require gastroscopy tube placement.  Motor skills are delayed and expressive language may never develop.  General irritability and increased muscle tone with hyperreflexia are usually present eventually resulting in joint contractures. 

EEGs , electromyography, and nerve conduction studies have been normal in 3 patients.  A brain MRI in one patient showed a leukodystrophic pattern in periventricular areas.  Variable cardiac malfunctions such as heart failure, LVH, and pericarditis were observed in several patients.

Sudden death following a short febrile illness has been reported to occur in three of the six affected children before the age of 15 years. 

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the C11ORF73 gene (11q14.2) are responsible for this disorder.  Three unrelated families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent have been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Spastic Paraplegia 11

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Gaze evoked nystagmus and pigmentation in the macula are components of this syndrome and adults have some degree of retinal degeneration with poor vision eventually.  Optic atrophy and ptosis have been reported but rarely.   

Systemic Features: 

his progressive condition nay have its onset in childhood or early adolescence although rarely it first appears in adulthood.  Obesity is a component in older individuals.  Loss of ambulation usually occurs within 10 years of the onset of gait difficulties.  Hyperreflexia and spasticity develop early while ataxia, urinary sphincter disturbances, extensor plantar responses, and dysarthria appear later.  Amyotrophy is frequently seen in the thenar and hypothenar muscles.  Children have learning difficulties while cognitive decline and frank mental retardation occur somewhat later.  

Peripheral nerve biopsy may reveal hypomyelination and loss of unmyelinated nerve fibers.  MRI imaging in some individuals shows a thin or absent corpus callosum and cortical atrophy. 

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the gene SPG11 (15q21.1) encoding spatacsin are responsible for this disorder. 

See spastic paraplegia 15 (Kjellin syndrome) (270700) and spastic paraplegia 7 (607259) for other disorders with retinal degeneration, optic atrophy, and nystagmus.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

None known.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in SPG11, encoding spatacsin, are a major cause of spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum

Stevanin G, Santorelli FM, Azzedine H, Coutinho P, Chomilier J, Denora PS, Martin E, Ouvrard-Hernandez AM, Tessa A, Bouslam N, Lossos A, Charles P, Loureiro JL, Elleuch N, Confavreux C, Cruz VT, Ruberg M, Leguern E, Grid D, Tazir M, Fontaine B, Filla A, Bertini E, Durr A, Brice A. Mutations in SPG11, encoding spatacsin, are a major cause of spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Nat Genet. 2007 Mar;39(3):366-72.

PubMed ID: 
17322883

Hypotonia, Infantile, with Psychomotor Retardation And Characteristic Facies 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus, strabismus and sometimes optic atrophy have been noted.  Poor fixation may be present.   

Systemic Features: 

This progressive disorder can be evident at birth based on the facial dysmorphism.  The face is triangular, the forehead is prominent, the nose is small, the ears appear large and low-set.  The mouth appears wide with a thin upper lip.  Early development may be near normal for the first 6 months but thereafter psychomotor regression and slow physical growth are evident.  Patients have microcephaly and seldom achieve normal milestones.  Spasticity in the extremities and truncal hypotonia with distal muscle atrophy are evident.  The face appears triangular, the forehead is prominent, the nose is small, and the ears appear large and low-set.  Pectus carinatum and pes varus may be present.   Males often have cryptorchidism.

Brain imaging has revealed cerebellar atrophy and "while matter abnormalities".  Sural nerve biopsies show evidence of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

Some individuals are less severely affected, retain the ability to speak, and are able to walk at least into the second decade of life.

Genetics

Based on transmission patterns this condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in in the NALCN gene (13q32.3-q33.1.

For somewhat similar disorders caused by mutations in other genes see IHPRF2 (616801) and IHPRF3 (616900).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Eye Movement Disorders with CACNA1A Mutations

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Eye movement disorders secondary to CACNA1A mutations include congenital nystagmus, abnormal saccades and paroxysmal tonic upgaze and can be early indicators of underlying neurologic disease.  The median age of presentation in one series was 1.2 years.

Systemic Features: 

Eye movement disorders form a group of conditions that may occur in isolation but can also be associated with underlying neurological disease (vida infra).

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the CACNA1A gene (19p13.13) have been associated with a number of conditions including type 2 episodic ataxia (108500), familial hemiplegic migraine 1 (141500), and 2 (602481), spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (183086), and several types of eye movement disorders including congenital nystagmus, abnormal saccades, and paroxysmal tonic upgaze. 

The gene product is a transmembrane pore-forming subunit of a voltage-gated calcium channel expressed abundantly in neuronal tissue.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The use of calcium channel blockers may have some benefit in preventing severe hemiplegic migraine.

References
Article Title: 

Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia, Axial

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Due to the small number of individuals reported, the ocular phenotype is variable and likely incompletely described.  Optic atrophy and pigmentary retinopathy are the most consistent findings.  The most completely studied individual had evidence of slight bilateral optic nerve atrophy on cerebral MRI imaging as well.  There may be extensive RPE atrophy but the fundus pigmentation is usually described as resembling retinitis pigmentosa.  The ERG in several patients during the second decade of life already shows severe dysfunction of the photoreceptors, with cones the most severely impacted.  In spite of this Goldmann visual fields have been reported to be normal.  The macula and OCT have been reported as normal.  Telecanthus, nystagmus, hypertelorism, proptosis, and photophobia have been reported.  Early onset and progressive visual impairment are characteristic.

Systemic Features: 

Only 5 patients with this condition have been reported most of whom were short in stature.  There may be frontal bossing and the chest is narrow and flattened.  Moderate platyspondyly has been described with enlarged but shortened ribs and an irregular iliac crest.  Rhizomelic shortening of the limbs is common.  The femoral metaphyses are abnormal with their necks shortened and enlarged.  The ribs are enlarged but shortened as well and are flared at the ends.  Mental development and function are normal.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in C21orf2.

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Axial Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia Is Caused by C21orf2 Mutations

Wang Z, Iida A, Miyake N, Nishiguchi KM, Fujita K, Nakazawa T, Alswaid A, Albalwi MA, Kim OH, Cho TJ, Lim GY, Isidor B, David A, Rustad CF, Merckoll E, Westvik J, Stattin EL, Grigelioniene G, Kou I, Nakajima M, Ohashi H, Smithson S, Matsumoto N, Nishimura G, Ikegawa S. Axial Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia Is Caused by C21orf2 Mutations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 14;11(13).

PubMed ID: 
26974433

Axial spondylometaphysealdysplasia

Ehara S, Kim OH, Maisawa S, Takasago Y, Nishimura G. Axial spondylometaphysealdysplasia. Eur J Pediatr. 1997 Aug;156(8):627-30.

PubMed ID: 
9266195

Spastic Paraplegia 75

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus with optic atrophy is usually present and one individual had glaucoma. 

Systemic Features: 

This is an early-onset and progressive neurodegenerative disorder.  Hypotonia may be present at birth.  A spastic gait and difficulty walking is noted in early childhood and most individuals never walk unassisted. Yong adults have spastic paresis with extensor plantar responses and clonus has been reported.  Distal muscle atrophy in the lower extremities has been noted.  Speech is dysarthric.  Brain imaging has been normal in some patients whereas others have mild atrophy of the cerebellum and the corpus callosum.  Cognitive impairment is variable with some individuals showing poor school performance while others are described as mentally retarded.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the MAG gene (19q13.12) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported although physical therapy may be helpful. Special education, speech and physical therapy, and low vision devices might also be of benefit.

References
Article Title: 

Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder

Lossos A, Elazar N, Lerer I, Schueler-Furman O, Fellig Y, Glick B, Zimmerman BE, Azulay H, Dotan S, Goldberg S, Gomori JM, Ponger P, Newman JP, Marreed H, Steck AJ, Schaeren-Wiemers N, Mor N, Harel M, Geiger T, Eshed-Eisenbach Y, Meiner V, Peles E. Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder. Brain. 2015 Sep;138(Pt 9):2521-36.

PubMed ID: 
26179919

Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders

Novarino G, Fenstermaker AG, Zaki MS, Hofree M, Silhavy JL, Heiberg AD, Abdellateef M, Rosti B, Scott E, Mansour L, Masri A, Kayserili H, Al-Aama JY, Abdel-Salam GM, Karminejad A, Kara M, Kara B, Bozorgmehri B, Ben-Omran T, Mojahedi F, Mahmoud IG, Bouslam N, Bouhouche A, Benomar A, Hanein S, Raymond L,Forlani S, Mascaro M, Selim L, Shehata N, Al-Allawi N, Bindu PS, Azam M, Gunel M, Caglayan A, Bilguvar K, Tolun A, Issa MY, Schroth J, Spencer EG, Rosti RO, Akizu N, Vaux KK, Johansen A, Koh AA, Megahed H, Durr A, Brice A, Stevanin G, Gabriel SB, Ideker T, Gleeson JG. Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders. Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):506-11.

PubMed ID: 
24482476

Takenouchi-Kosaki Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular phenotype consists of mild ptosis, synophrys, exotropia, and eversion of the lower eyelids.  One of two reported patients was described as having bilateral retinal dysplasia and a falciform retinal detachment in one eye.  Visual acuity is significantly impaired.

Systemic Features: 

Affected individuals may be of normal birth weight but skeletal growth is subnormal and there is general developmental delay.  Congenial cardiac anomalies such as persistent ductus arteriosus may be present.  Lymphedema has been noted at one year of age and probably persists throughout life.  Protein-losing enteropathy secondary to intestinal lymphangiectasia was present in one individual.  The same patient had pericardial effusion, hydrothorax, and ascites.  Intellectual disability may be severe although there is no evidence of progression.  Neurosensory hearing loss has been described in one patient.

Thrombocytopenia is a consistent finding and has been described as early as one year of age.  Platelet numbers as low as 52,000/microL have been recorded and appear larger than normal. 

Genetics

Both unrelated female patients reported have heterozygous missense mutations in the CDC42 gene (1p36). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

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