jaundice

Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus, disconjugate eye movements, and "optic dysplasia" have been noted.

Systemic Features: 

Infants feed poorly which is frequently associated with vomiting, failure to thrive, and growth delay.  They are hypothermic, hypoglycemic, and often jaundiced with signs of liver failure noted between birth and 6 months of age and death by approximately 1 year of age.  Hepatosplenomegaly is present early with abnormal liver enzymes, cholestasis, steatosis, and hepatocellular loss followed by cirrhosis with portal hypertension.  Metabolic acidosis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoglycemia are often present.  Mitochondrial DNA depletion in the liver approaches 84-90%.

All patients have encephalopathic signs with evidence of cerebral atrophy, microcephaly, hypotonia.  Hyperreflexia may be present and some infants have seizures.  Muscle tissue, however, has normal histology and respiratory chain activity.

Genetics

This disorder results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the DGUOK gene (2p13).

The same gene is mutated in PEOB4 (617070).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no effective treatment.  Liver transplantation in one infant was unsuccessful.  

References
Article Title: 

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular signs resemble those of other peroxisomal disorders with cataracts and retinopathy.  The lethal consequences of ZWS have hampered delineation of the full spectrum of ocular manifestations but many infants have these features plus optic atrophy and horizontal nystagmus.  Most infants do not follow light.  Pupillary responses may be normal in early stages but disappear later. Hypertelorism has been described but metrics are often normal.

Systemic Features: 

Many infants have hepatomegaly at birth and may develop splenomegaly as well.  Jaundice often occurs with intrahepatic biliary dysgenesis.   Severe hypotonia is present at birth but improves in those patients who survive for several years.  Psychomotor retardation can be profound and seizures may occur but sensory examinations are normal.  Most infants have a peculiar craniofacial dysmorphology with frontal bossing, large fontanels, and wide set eyes.  Pipecolic acid levels are low in serum and absent in the CSF.  Most infants do not survive beyond 6 months of age.

 

Genetics

This is a peroxisome biogenesis disorder with a complex biochemical profile resulting from a large number of mutations in at least 13 PEX genes.  It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

What was formerly called Zellweger Syndrome is now more properly called Zellweger Spectrum Disorder, or sometimes a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder in the Zellweger spectrum of disorders.  The spectrum also includes neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (601539) and Infantile Refsum disease (601539). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Galactose Epimerase Deficiency

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

At least some patients have childhood cataracts which may be unilateral.  Direct assay of GALE activity in lenses shows a significant decrease in at least some patients.

Systemic Features: 

This rare disorder of galactose metabolism has an especially wide range of expression.  Some patients seem to have little or no clinical disease whereas others are severely affected.   Early cases were found to have epimerase deficiency only in circulating red blood cells while other cells seemed to have normal levels of the enzyme.  Some of these patients have virtually no symptoms.  Later, cases were found that resembled classic galactosemia (230400) in presentation and even responded to galactose restriction diets. Current thought favors the hypothesis that the same gene defect is responsible for the entire continuum of clinical disease.  Red blood cells have elevated levels of galactose-1-phosphate.

 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the GALE gene (1p36-p35.

Another disorder of galactose metabolism causing early onset cataracts is galactokinase deficiency (230200) caused by mutations in GALK1.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

A galactose-restricted diet is beneficial.  Since these patients are unable to utilize the endogenous pathway of synthesis for UDP-galactose they are dependent on exogenous galactose and therefore some galactose is required in the diet.

References
Article Title: 

Galactosemia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Neonatal cataracts are found among at least 30% of infants with this disorder.  However, early (before 17 days of age) dietary restrictions can prevent their formation or even lead to regression.  They result from the osmotic imbalance caused by the presence of accumulated galactitol.  Neonates may suffer vitreous hemorrhages from the coagulopathy but this is rare.

Systemic Features: 

In spite of early and adequate treatment, however, many adults have residual problems.  Cataracts have been found in 21%, decreased bone density in 24%, tremor in 46%, ataxia in 15%, and dysarthria in 24%.  Few patients of either sex have children and all females have premature ovarian insufficiency.  Depression and anxiety are present in 39-67%.  It has been estimated that there is a twofold increase in the odds of depression with each 10 year increment of age.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the GALT gene (9p13) encoding galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase.

For other disorders of galactose metabolism see galactose epimerase deficiency (230350) and galactokinase deficiency (230200).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment with a lactose- and galactose-free diet within the first 3-17 days can prevent the formation of cataracts.  Few need surgical removal.  Liver function improves and a reduction in icterus can be seen.  It can also prevent fatal E. coli sepsis.  However, long term effects have been disappointing as many patients still develop mental and motor dysfunction as well as speech difficulties (dyspraxia).  The long term outcome seems to depend upon the level of GALT enzyme activity which varies considerably.

References
Article Title: 

The adult galactosemic phenotype

Waisbren SE, Potter NL, Gordon CM, Green RC, Greenstein P, Gubbels CS, Rubio-Gozalbo E, Schomer D, Welt C, Anastasoaie V, D'Anna K, Gentile J, Guo CY, Hecht L, Jackson R, Jansma BM, Li Y, Lip V, Miller DT, Murray M, Power L, Quinn N, Rohr F, Shen Y, Skinder-Meredith A, Timmers I, Tunick R, Wessel A, Wu BL, Levy H, Elsas L, Berry GT. The adult galactosemic phenotype. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011 Jul 21. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 
21779791

Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Juvenile cataracts are the primary ocular feature of this disorder and are found in virtually all patients.  These often cause the first symptoms and become evident in the first decade and almost always by the third decade of life.  Lens opacification may require extraction at that time and aspirated lens material may contain lipid-containing vacuoles.  However, some cataracts may not be diagnosed until the 5th or 6th decades after the onset of neurological symptoms, usually because the opacities are located in the peripheral cortex and do not cause visual symptoms. 

Optic atrophy occurs in nearly half of affected individuals.  Yellowish flakes resembling cholesterol crystals can sometimes be seen in the vitreous. The fundus may have scattered hard exudates and cholesterol-like deposits along the vascular arcades and arterioles show evidence of atherosclerosis.  RPE window defects are common.

Systemic Features: 

CTX has serious systemic neurologic signs and symptoms resulting from a deficiency of a mitochondrial enzyme, sterol 27-hydroxylase.  The result is reduced bile acid synthesis and increased levels of cholestanol in plasma, tissues, and CSF.  This results in a characteristic phenotype of tendon xanthomas, and neurological dysfunction including mental regression or illness, cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, and pyramidal signs to various degrees.  Neonatal jaundice and diarrhea are common.

Genetics

This autosomal recessive disorder results from a mutation in the CYP27A1 gene (2q33-qter) encoding sterol 27-hydroxylase.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

This is a treatable disorder in which administration of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is beneficial.  This compound is virtually absent from bile in people with CTX.  Exogenous administration reduces high levels of cholesterol and cholestanol in the CSF, tissues, and plasma with improvement in mental function and signs of peripheral neuropathy and cerebellar dysfunction.  It is frequently given in combination with other HMG-CoA inhibitors such as pravastatin.  Early diagnosis and treatment are important.

References
Article Title: 

Alagille Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular findings in Alagille syndrome are often of little functional significance but can be sufficient to suggest the diagnosis without further study of the systemic features.  Posterior embryotoxon is found in 95% of individuals while iris abnormalities such as ectopic pupils are seen in 45%, abnormal fundus pigmentation is common (hypopigmentation in 57%, diffuse pigment speckling in 33%), and optic disc anomalies have been reported in 76%.  One study found that 90% of individuals have optic disk drusen by ultrasonography.  The anterior chamber anomalies are considered by some to be characteristic of Axenfeld anomaly.  The presence of these ocular findings in children with cholestasis should suggest Alagille syndrome.  Ocular examination of the parents can also be helpful in this autosomal dominant disorder as some of the same changes are present in one parent in more than a third of cases.

Systemic Features: 

A variety of  systemic features, some of them serious malformations, occur in Alagille syndrome.  Among the most common is a partial intrahepatic biliary atresia leading to cholestasis and jaundice.  Skeletal malformations include 'butterfly' vertebrae, shortened digits, short stature, a broad forehead, and a pointed chin.  The tip of the nose may appear bulbous.  These features have suggested to some that there is a characteristic facial dysmorphology.  Vascular malformations are common including aneurysms affecting major vessels, valvular insufficiency, coarctation of the aorta, and stenosis and these are often responsible for the most serious health problems.  In fact, vascular events have been reported to be responsible for mortality in 34% of one cohort.  Chronic renal insufficiency develops in a minority of patients.  This disorder should always be considered in children with cholestasis, especially when accompanied by cystic kidney disease.  Brain MRIs may show diffuse or focal hyperintensity of white matter even in the absence of hepatic encephalopathy.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant condition secondary to various mutations in the JAG1 gene located on chromosome 20 (20p12).  Penetrance is nearly 100% but there is considerable variation in expression.  A far less common variant of this disorder, ALGS2 (610205), is caused by a mutation in the NOTCH2 gene (1p13-p11).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No cure is available but individual organ disease may be treatable.  The ocular abnormalities generally do not cause vision difficulties.

Reversible of white matter changes has been noted in a single child following liver transplantation.

 

References
Article Title: 

CT-defined phenotype of pulmonary artery

Rodriguez RM, Feinstein JA, Chan FP. CT-defined phenotype of pulmonary artery
stenoses in Alagille syndrome
. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
27041277

Alagille syndrome: clinical and ocular pathognomonic features

El-Koofy NM, El-Mahdy R, Fahmy ME, El-Hennawy A, Farag MY, El-Karaksy HM. Alagille syndrome: clinical and ocular pathognomonic features. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jul 28. pii: 192165A5-8631-4C06-9C47-9AD63688B02A. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 
20677167

Ocular abnormalities in Alagille syndrome

Hingorani M, Nischal KK, Davies A, Bentley C, Vivian A, Baker AJ, Mieli-Vergani G, Bird AC, Aclimandos WA. Ocular abnormalities in Alagille syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1999 Feb;106(2):330-7.

PubMed ID: 
9951486
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