hypospadius

Roberts Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes often appear prominent as the result of shallow orbits.  Hypertelorism and microphthalmia can be present.  The sclerae can have a bluish hue.   Cataracts and central corneal clouding plus scleralization and vascularization of the peripheral corneas are sometimes seen.  Lid colobomas and down-slanting palpebral fissures may be present.

Systemic Features: 

Failure of both membranous and long bones to grow properly lead to a variety of abnormalities such as craniosynostosis, hypomelia, syndactyly, oligodactyly, malar hypoplasia, short neck, micrognathia, and cleft lip and palate.  The long bones of the limbs may be underdeveloped or even absent.  Contractures of elbow, knee, and ankle joints are common as are digital anomalies.  Low birth weight and slow postnatal growth rates are usually result in short stature.  The hair is often sparse and light-colored. 

Mental development is impaired and some children are diagnosed to have mental retardation.  Cardiac defects are common.  Facial hemangiomas are often present as are septal defects and sometimes a patent ductus arteriosus.  External genitalia in both sexes appear enlarged.  The kidneys may be polycystic or horseshoe-shaped.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the ESCO2 gene (8p21.1).  Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for what some have called the SC phocomelia syndrome (269000) which has a similar but less severe phenotype.  Some consider the two disorders to be variants of the same condition and they are considered to be the same entity in this database.  The gene product is required for structural maintenance of centromeric cohesion during the cell cycle.  Microscopic anomalies of the centromeric region (puffing of the heterochromatic regions) are sometimes seen during cell division.

The Baller-Gerold syndrome (218600) has some phenotypic overlap with Roberts syndrome but is caused by mutations in a different gene (RECQL4).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Severely affected infants may be stillborn or die in infancy.  Other individuals live to adulthood.  There is no treatment for this condition beyond specific correction of individual anomalies.

References
Article Title: 

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A large number of ocular anomalies have been found in SLO syndrome but the most common is blepharoptosis of some degree.  No consistent pattern of ocular abnormalities has been reported.  Atrophy and hypoplasia of the optic nerve, strabismus, nystagmus, and cataracts may be present.   Abnormally low concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol precursors have been found in all ocular tissues studied.

Systemic Features: 

This is a syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies.  Among these are dwarfism, micrognathia, hard palate anomalies, hypotonia, anomalies of the external genitalia, polysyndactyly, microcephaly, and mental retardation.  It has been suggested that many individuals have a characteristic behavioral profile consisting of cognitive delays, hyperreactivity, irritability, language deficiency, and autism spectrum behaviors.  Some individuals exhibit aspects of self destructive behavior.  Tissue levels of cholesterol are low.

Genetics

SLO syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the sterol delta-7-reductase  (DHCR7) gene mapped to 11q12-q13. The result is a defect in cholesterol synthesis.

The clinical features significantly overlap those seen in Meckel (249000) and Joubert (213300) syndromes.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

A high cholesterol diet has been reported to have a beneficial effect on behavior and general well-being.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome, Type 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders with overlapping features.  Common to all types are the presence of ocular, dental, facial, skeletal abnormalities and autosomal dominant inheritance.  Anterior chamber dysgenesis of some form is universally present and severe glaucoma occurs in 50% of patients.  This may have its onset in childhood with typical symptoms of congenital glaucoma such as photophobia, excessive tearing and corneal clouding.  Hypoplasia of the iris is common and when progressive may result in an ectopic pupil and/or pseudopolycoria.  Iris insertion and Schwalbe's line are often anteriorly displaced with iridocorneal adhesions, a pattern that leads to the inclusion of this disorder among those with iridogoniodysgenesis or anterior chamber dysgenesis.  Pupillary ectropion of the posterior pigmented layer of the iris may be seen.

There is considerable clinical overlap among conditions with iris dysgenesis.  Some patients with typical systemic features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome may even have typical anterior chamber features of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly in one eye and severe iris hypoplasia resembling aniridia in the other.

Systemic Features: 

Dental anomalies and mid-facial hypoplasia secondary to underdeveloped maxillary sinuses are among the most common systemic features in type 1.  The nasal root often appears abnormally broad and the lower lip appears to protrude. The teeth are frequently small and conical in shape with wide spaces between them (diastema).  Some teeth may be missing.  The umbilicus may fail to involute normally and retains excessive, redundant skin that sometimes leads to the erroneous diagnosis of an umbilical hernia for which unnecessary surgery may be performed.  Hypospadius is frequently present while cardiac defects, sensorineural deafness, and anal stenosis are less common.

Genetics

There is clinical and genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome and precise classification of many families remains elusive without knowing the genotype.  Mutations in at least four genes are responsible and all are are responsible for phenotypes transmitted in autosomal dominant patterns.  Type 1 discussed here is caused by a mutation in the homeobox transcription factor gene, PITX2, located at 4q25-q26.  A type of iris hypoplasia (IH)/iridogoniodysgenesis (IGDS) (IRID2; 137600) disorder has been classified separately but is caused by a mutation in PITX2 as well and many cases have the same systemic features.  Mutations in the same gene have also been found in ring dermoid of the cornea (180550) and in some cases of Peters anomaly (604229).

RIEG2 (601499) is rare but a deletion of 13q14 has been reported in several cases.  Mapping in a large family with 11 affected individuals yielded a locus in the same region.  Clinical signs overlap types 1 and 3 with dental, craniofacial, and ocular features, but with hearing impairment and rare umbilical anomalies.

Mutations in the FOXC1 gene (6p25) may be responsible for RIEG3 (602482).  However, a family has been reported with a severe 'Axenfeld-Rieger phenotype' in which a digenic etiology may have been responsible: patients had mutations in both FOXC1 and PITX2

Heterozygous mutations in the PRDM5 gene (4q25-q26) have been identified in 4 members of a Pakistani family with typical features of the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. It is labeled type 4 Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome in this database. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The presence of glaucoma requires prompt and vigorous treatment but control is difficult with blindness too often the result.  Oral surgery may be beneficial for dental problems.  Low vision aids can be useful.

References
Article Title: 

The Rieger syndrome

Jorgenson RJ, Levin LS, Cross HE, Yoder F, Kelly TE. The Rieger syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1978;2(3):307-18.

PubMed ID: 
263445
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