hypodontia

Progeroid Short Stature with Pigmented Nevi

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The presence of cataract has been reported.   One patient with keratoconus, endothelial dystrophy, and chronic conjunctivitis required a corneal transplant for a perforated ulcer.  Another individual with endothelial dystrophy, keratoconus, dry eye syndrome, and conjunctivitis developed OCT evidence of progressive retinal thickening and folding of inner retinal layers.  Retinal electrodiagnostic tests were normal.   Few patients have had complete ocular examinations, however.

Systemic Features: 

Short stature beginning in utero is characteristic and general growth parameters are usually in the third percentile.  The appearance of premature aging is suggested by a pinched bird-like facies and lack of facial subcutaneous fat.  Striking cutaneous pigmented nevi are present and may increase in number throughout life.  Joint mobility is limited to about half of normal.  The voice is often characteristically high-pitched.  Hypodontia and irregular dentition are often seen.

There may be an immunodeficiency as reflected by susceptibility to recurrent infections due to subnormal numbers of B and T cells.  Cognitive abilities are subnormal and some decline in adulthood has been reported.  Some individuals have been considered mentally retarded.  Agitation, touch hypersensitivity, depression, panic attacks, and severe insomnia may be present.  Sensorineural hearing loss is common.  Males may have hypospadias while females experience premature puberty and premature menopause.

Genetics

Consanguinity among some parents suggests autosomal recessive inheritance but no locus or mutation have been identified.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatnent has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome, Type 4

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular features of this syndrome are similar to types 1-3 and primarily involve the anterior segment.  The iris stroma is hypoplastic and the pupil location may be eccentric.  Full thickness defects in the iris can lead to pseudopolycoria.   There may be anterior displacement of the angle structures with posterior embryotoxon and localized corneal opacification.    Glaucoma is a common feature and it may be present in early childhood, associated with tearing, a hazy cornea, and buphthalmos.  Vitreous condensation was noted in all 4 reported individuals.

Systemic Features: 

The midface is flat due to maxillary underdevelopment and the teeth may be abnormally small.  Micrognathia has been reported while the nasal root is abnormally broad.  The umbilical defect consists of redundant skin that failed to involute normally.  Congenital hip anomalies of undetermined nature and a hearing defect were reported in 2 of 4 individuals.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the PRDM5 gene (4q25-q26) are responsible for this condition.  Mutations in CYP1b1, PITX2, and FOXC1 were not present.  One extended pedigree with 4 affected individuals from Pakistan has been reported. 

Type 1 Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (180500) results from heterozygous mutations in PITX2RIEG2 (601499) from heterozygous mutations in 13q14, and RIEG3 (602482) from heterozygous mutations in the FOXC1 gene.  Thus in three types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (1,3, and 4) the responsible mutation occurs in a transcription factor gene which may explain why the phenotype is highly variable with considerable overlap in clinical signs.

Autosomal recessive brittle cornea syndrome type 2 (614170) is also caused by mutations in the PRDM5 gene. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at correction of individual problems such as glaucoma and dental anomalies.  One patient required surgery for a retinal detachment. Lifelong ocular monitoring is recommended. 

References
Article Title: 

Blepharocheilodontic Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyelids are disproportionately large with an associated lagophthalmos and lower lid ectropion.  The upper eyelids may have a double row of lashes (distichiasis).  Hypertelorism and a broad nasal root have been reported.

Systemic Features: 

A cleft lip and palate are major features and are usually bilateral.  The teeth are conically shaped with microdontia and oligodontia (involving both primary and secondary dentition) often present as well.  Several newborns have had an imperforate anus. Scalp hair may be sparse and hypoplastic nails have been described.  Hypothyroidism and thyroid agenesis has been documented in several patients.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant condition resulting from mutations in the CDH1 gene (16q22.1).

Blepharocheilodontic syndrome 2 is caused by mutations in the CTNND1 gene (16q22.1).

Other conditions with distichiasis include Blatt distichiasis (126300) and lymphedema-distichiasis (153400).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment consists of correction of individual anomalies such as eyelid, oral, and dental malformations.

References
Article Title: 

Blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome

Gorlin RJ, Zellweger H, Curtis MW, Wiedemann HR, Warburg M, Majewski F, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Prahl-Andersen B, Zackai E. Blepharo-cheilo-dontic (BCD) syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1996 Oct 16;65(2):109-12.

PubMed ID: 
8911600

Nystagmus-Split Hand Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The only consistent ocular finding is pendular nystagmus beginning at birth.  There is some evidence that the eye movements decrease with age.  Acuity in a 46 year old female was recorded to be 20/40 in each eye whereas one of her children had 20/70.  Two patients (father and daughter) have been described as having cataracts and “fundus changes”, not further defined.  Other patients have been described with normal fundi.  The ERG has been normal in several patients.  Some authors have noted hypertelorism.

The ocular phenotype requires further definition.  For example, in a single published photograph of a young child the medial portion of the eye brows is sparsely populated and all eyelashes in the medial one-third of the upper lid appear to be absent.  This has not been commented on in publications, however.

Systemic Features: 

The hand and foot malformation is severe, described as split-hand/split foot deformity.  It may involve all four extremities or just the upper extremity with monodactyly.  When the hand is involved, it may be called a lobster-claw deformity, or ectrodactyly.  The middle digit is characteristicly missing but other fingers and toes are sometimes absent.

The teeth erupt late, some may be missing and others are often poorly formed. Frontal bossing, sunken cheeks, and thick and everted lips may be part of the facial phenotype.

Genetics

The genetics of Karsch-Neugebauer is obscure although the majority of evidence is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance.  Parent-child transmission and male-to-male transmission have been observed.  In other families the parents are normal but reduced penetrance has not been ruled out.  Further, there are several types of split-hand deformities but this is the only one associated with nystagmus.  No locus or mutation has been found for this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Surgical reconstruction can sometimes improve hand function.

References
Article Title: 

Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nearly all patients (80+ %) have microphthalmia and bilateral congenital cataracts.  Microcornea is common.  The eyebrows may be hypoplastic and the eyelashes likewise are sparse.  The lid fissures often slant down and telecanthus has been noted.  The distance between the two eyes appears reduced.  Blue sclerae, nystagmus, strabismus, and glaucoma are present in 10 to 30% of patients.

Systemic Features: 

The facies are sometimes described as 'bird-like' with a beaked nose, brachycephaly, and micrognathia.  Microstomia with a shortened ramus and forward displacement of the termporomandibular joints is characteristic. Upper airway obstruction may occur with severe respiratory distress.  The forehead is relatively prominent, the palate is highly arched, and the teeth are often small and some may be missing with misalignment of others.  A few teeth may even be present at birth (natal teeth).  Children appear petite and are often short in stature.  Scalp hair is thin, especially in the frontal and occipital areas, and the skin is atrophic.  Developmental delays are common but most patients have normal or near-normal intelligence.

Genetics

Most cases are sporadic but some have mutations in the GJA1 gene (6q21-q23.2).  Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been postulated.  Reproductive fitness may be low but rare affected individuals have had affected offspring.  Males and females are equally affected.

This disorder is allelic to oculodentodigital dysplasia (257850, 164200).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Airway obstruction may require intervention and its risks must be considered during administration of general anesthesia.  Lens opacification may be severe even early in life and requires prompt surgical intervention to prevent amblyopia.

References
Article Title: 

Incontinentia Pigmenti

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is primarily a disorder of skin, teeth, hair, and the central nervous system but 35% of patients have important ocular features.  The iris is variably atrophic and has pigmentary anomalies often with posterior synechiae.  Nystagmus, strabismus, and limited vision are often present.  The majority (up to 90%) of individuals have significant retinal disease.  The retinal vascular pattern is anomalous with tortuosity in some areas and absence of vessels in others.  Preretinal fibrosis and retinal detachments may suggest the presence of a retinoblastoma.  Cataracts are common in patients who have a retinal detachment and some patients have microphthalmia. The retinal pigment epithelium is often abnormal with various-sized patches of sharply demarcated depigmentation.  Cases with uveitis, papillitis and chorioretinitis have been observed and it has been suggested that the observed retinal and choroidal changes result from prior inflammatory disease, perhaps even occurring in utero. There is a great deal of asymmetry in the clinical findings in the two eyes.

Systemic Features: 

Skin changes consisting of erythematous eruptions in a linear pattern are often present at birth and this may be followed by a verrucous stage.  The acute, early findings of inflammatory disease eventually subside, ultimately resulting in pigmentary changes that appear in a 'marbled pattern' in young adults.  Hypodontia and anodontia may be present.  Alopecia and CNS abnormalities are found in nearly half of patients.  Skeletal and structural deformities are common in patients with severe neurological deficits.

As many as 30% of patients have neurological features which may be present in the neonatal period.  Seizures of various types occur in 30% of patients.  MRI findings include periventricular and subcortical white matter changes, as well as corpus callosum hypoplasia, cerebral atrophy, and cerebellar hypoplasia.

 

Genetics

The majority of evidence suggests that this is an X-linked dominant disorder with lethality in males although sporadic cases occur.  The mutation occurs as a genomic rearrangement of the IKK-gamma gene, also known as NEMO (IKBKG) located at Xq28.  There is evidence from skin cultures that cells with the mutant X chromosome inactivated are preferentially viable.  It has been proposed that cells with the mutant bearing X chromosome as the active one are gradually replaced by those in which the normal X chromosome is active accounting for the post-natal course of the skin disease.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the generalized disorder is available although ocular surgery might be beneficial in rare cases with cataracts and detachments.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome, Type 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

As in RIEG1 and RIEG3, glaucoma is the most serious ocular problem.  In a large family with 11 affected members, 9 had glaucoma.  All had the classic ocular signs of anterior segment dysgenesis, primarily posterior embryotoxon and iris adhesions (for a full description of the ocular features see Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, RIEG1 [180500]).

Systemic Features: 

Oligodontia, microdontia, and premature loss of teeth are common in type 2.  Maxillary hypoplasia is less common as is hearing loss.  Umbilical anomalies were not present in any affected individuals.  Cardiac defects are rare.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder as in the other types.  The locus is at 13q14 but no molecular defect has been defined.  At least two individuals purported to have type 2 were found to have deletions of this segment of chromosome 13.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The high risk of glaucoma demands lifelong monitoring of intraocular pressure.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome, Type 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders with overlapping features.  Common to all types are the presence of ocular, dental, facial, skeletal abnormalities and autosomal dominant inheritance.  Anterior chamber dysgenesis of some form is universally present and severe glaucoma occurs in 50% of patients.  This may have its onset in childhood with typical symptoms of congenital glaucoma such as photophobia, excessive tearing and corneal clouding.  Hypoplasia of the iris is common and when progressive may result in an ectopic pupil and/or pseudopolycoria.  Iris insertion and Schwalbe's line are often anteriorly displaced with iridocorneal adhesions, a pattern that leads to the inclusion of this disorder among those with iridogoniodysgenesis or anterior chamber dysgenesis.  Pupillary ectropion of the posterior pigmented layer of the iris may be seen.

There is considerable clinical overlap among conditions with iris dysgenesis.  Some patients with typical systemic features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome may even have typical anterior chamber features of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly in one eye and severe iris hypoplasia resembling aniridia in the other.

Systemic Features: 

Dental anomalies and mid-facial hypoplasia secondary to underdeveloped maxillary sinuses are among the most common systemic features in type 1.  The nasal root often appears abnormally broad and the lower lip appears to protrude. The teeth are frequently small and conical in shape with wide spaces between them (diastema).  Some teeth may be missing.  The umbilicus may fail to involute normally and retains excessive, redundant skin that sometimes leads to the erroneous diagnosis of an umbilical hernia for which unnecessary surgery may be performed.  Hypospadius is frequently present while cardiac defects, sensorineural deafness, and anal stenosis are less common.

Genetics

There is clinical and genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome and precise classification of many families remains elusive without knowing the genotype.  Mutations in at least four genes are responsible and all are are responsible for phenotypes transmitted in autosomal dominant patterns.  Type 1 discussed here is caused by a mutation in the homeobox transcription factor gene, PITX2, located at 4q25-q26.  A type of iris hypoplasia (IH)/iridogoniodysgenesis (IGDS) (IRID2; 137600) disorder has been classified separately but is caused by a mutation in PITX2 as well and many cases have the same systemic features.  Mutations in the same gene have also been found in ring dermoid of the cornea (180550) and in some cases of Peters anomaly (604229).

RIEG2 (601499) is rare but a deletion of 13q14 has been reported in several cases.  Mapping in a large family with 11 affected individuals yielded a locus in the same region.  Clinical signs overlap types 1 and 3 with dental, craniofacial, and ocular features, but with hearing impairment and rare umbilical anomalies.

Mutations in the FOXC1 gene (6p25) may be responsible for RIEG3 (602482).  However, a family has been reported with a severe 'Axenfeld-Rieger phenotype' in which a digenic etiology may have been responsible: patients had mutations in both FOXC1 and PITX2

Heterozygous mutations in the PRDM5 gene (4q25-q26) have been identified in 4 members of a Pakistani family with typical features of the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. It is labeled type 4 Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome in this database. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The presence of glaucoma requires prompt and vigorous treatment but control is difficult with blindness too often the result.  Oral surgery may be beneficial for dental problems.  Low vision aids can be useful.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome

Seifi M, Walter MA. Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Clin Genet. 2017 Oct 3. doi: 10.1111/cge.13148. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PubMed ID: 
28972279

The Rieger syndrome

Jorgenson RJ, Levin LS, Cross HE, Yoder F, Kelly TE. The Rieger syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1978;2(3):307-18.

PubMed ID: 
263445
Subscribe to RSS - hypodontia