hypertelorism

Elsahy-Waters Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Structural anomalies of periocular tissues are common.  Hypertelorism, proptosis, and telecanthus may be striking.  Colobomas or clefts of the upper lid are frequently seen.  The eyebrows are bushy and synophyrs may be present across a broad nasal bridge.  Megalocornea, downslanting lid fissures, glaucoma and cataracts have also been reported but are uncommon.

Systemic Features: 

The skull has been described as brachycephalic.  The midface is flat due to maxillary hypoplasia. The lower jaw is prominent and some patients have mandibular prognathism.  A bifid uvula or partial clefting of the palate are common.  Low-set and posteriorly rotated ears have been reported as well.

 Both pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum have been described.  The teeth have dysplastic enamel and often have obliterated pulp chambers and dental cysts.  Their roots may be shortened and deformed and they are often lost early.  Vertebrae may have fusion of the spines, particularly in the cervical area.  A mixed type of hearing loss is common and some degree of intellectual disability is often evident, especially in older individuals.  Most males have some degree of hypospadias.  Cryptorchidism has been reported in one individual.

Brain imaging in one case revealed no abnormalities.

Genetics

This disorder results from biallelic mutations in the CDH11 gene (16q21).  The parents have been consanguineous in most reports and no vertical transmission has been documented making autosomal recessive the most likely pattern of inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.  Eyelid and palatal defects may be surgically repaired and assistive hearing devices may be of benefit.  Special education is also likely to be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Schurrs-Hoeijmakers Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Mild structural variants are common among the periocular structures.  There is marked hypertelorism in many individuals, the eyebrows are full and highly arched, the eyelashes are long, and the lid fissures slant downward.  Ptosis is often evident.  Myopia, nystagmus, and strabismus are frequently noted.  Colobomas have been reported.

Systemic Features: 

There is general psychomotor delay in development.  Intellectual disability (with IQs in the 50s) and hypotonia are common.  Speech is poor and sometimes absent.   Behavioral anomalies such as aggression and features of autism have been reported.  The anterior hairline is low, the mouth is wide with downturned corners, the nose is bulbous, the ears are large and low-set, and the teeth are often widely-spaced.  Cryptorchidism is common among males.

Renal and cardiac defects are common.  Brain MRIs often show cerebellar hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, and nonspecific white matter changes.

Genetics

No treatment for the general disorder has been published.  Physical and speech therapy might be helpful

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been published.  Physical and speech therapy might be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients

Schuurs-Hoeijmakers JH, Landsverk ML, Foulds N, Kukolich MK, Gavrilova RH, Greville-Heygate S, Hanson-Kahn A, Bernstein JA, Glass J, Chitayat D, Burrow TA, Husami A, Collins K, Wusik K, van der Aa N, Kooy F, Brown KT, Gadzicki D, Kini U, Alvarez S, Fernandez-Jaen A, McGehee F, Selby K, Tarailo-Graovac M, Van Allen M, van Karnebeek CD, Stavropoulos DJ, Marshall CR, Merico D, Gregor A, Zweier C, Hopkin RJ, Chu YW, Chung BH, de Vries BB, Devriendt K, Hurles ME, Brunner HG; DDD study. Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Mar;170(3):670-5.

PubMed ID: 
26842493

Mental Retardation, AD 53

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Dysmorphism of periocular structures includes downward slanting lid fissures, hypertelorism, and epicanthal folds.  Evidence for visual problems comes from visual tracking difficulties in some individuals.  Strabismus is present in a minority of patients.

Systemic Features: 

Delayed global development, cognitive impairment, and intellectual disability are major features of this form of mental retardation.  Hypotonia is present early.  Severe delays in onset of speech and walking are found in all patients and never develop in many individuals.  Behavior problems include, anxiety, hyperactivity, aggression, and autistic traits.  Feeding problems and breathing irregularities have been reported.  Seizures occur in some patients.

Brain MRIs are generally normal although corpus callosum anomalies are sometimes identified.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the CAMK2A gene (5q32) have been found in individuals with this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general condition has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

De Novo Mutations in Protein Kinase Genes CAMK2A and CAMK2B Cause Intellectual Disability

Kury S, van Woerden GM, Besnard T, Proietti Onori M, Latypova X, Towne MC, Cho MT, Prescott TE, Ploeg MA, Sanders S, Stessman HAF, Pujol A, Distel B, Robak LA, Bernstein JA, Denomme-Pichon AS, Lesca G, Sellars EA, Berg J, Carre W, Busk OL, van Bon BWM, Waugh JL, Deardorff M, Hoganson GE, Bosanko KB, Johnson DS, Dabir T, Holla OL, Sarkar A, Tveten K, de Bellescize J, Braathen GJ, Terhal PA, Grange DK, van Haeringen A, Lam C, Mirzaa G, Burton J, Bhoj EJ, Douglas J, Santani AB, Nesbitt AI, Helbig KL, Andrews MV, Begtrup A, Tang S, van Gassen KLI, Juusola J, Foss K, Enns GM, Moog U, Hinderhofer K, Paramasivam N, Lincoln S, Kusako BH, Lindenbaum P, Charpentier E, Nowak CB, Cherot E, Simonet T, Ruivenkamp CAL, Hahn S, Brownstein CA, Xia F, Schmitt S, Deb W, Bonneau D, Nizon M, Quinquis D, Chelly J, Rudolf G, Sanlaville D, Parent P, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Toutain A, Sutton VR, Thies J, Peart-Vissers LELM, Boisseau P, Vincent M, Grabrucker AM, Dubourg C; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Tan WH, Verbeek NE, Granzow M, Santen GWE, Shendure J, Isidor B, Pasquier L, Redon R, Yang Y, State MW, Kleefstra T, Cogne B; GEM HUGO; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, Petrovski S, Retterer K, Eichler EE, Rosenfeld JA, Agrawal PB, Bezieau S, Odent S, Elgersma Y, Mercier S. De Novo Mutations in Protein Kinase Genes CAMK2A and CAMK2B Cause Intellectual Disability. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Nov 2;101(5):768-788.

PubMed ID: 
29100089

Sweeney-Cox Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

 Periorbital and facial anomalies were present in the two reported patients.  Pseudoproptosis (considered secondary to deficiency of the bony orbits) accentuated by midface hypoplasia, and upper lid colobomas have been observed.  The globes were described as "small" although there were no "concerns" regarding vision in the single male patient.  Electrodiagnostic tests were "normal."    

Systemic Features: 

Multiple anomalies and malformations were present in the two reported patients, an unrelated male and female.  Severe facial dysmorphism secondary to uneven skull bone formation and suture closures is present.  The metopic ridge is prominent, the orbital bones are deficient, the occiput is flattened, the anterior fontanel and coronal sutures are wide.  Midfacial hypoplasia is present.  The neck is broad and the shoulders are narrow.  The fingers are long and the distal phalanges may be fixed in flexion.  The ears are low-set, small, and cupped.  The palate is high and may be cleft.  Cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers has been observed.  Variable developmental delays/learning difficulties are present.

The male had an imperforate anus, undescended testes and a 60 dB hearing loss.  The female had a midline cleft palate with choanal atresia requiring a tracheostomy from birth and required fundoplication and gastrostomy for gastroesophageal reflux.

Genetics

Heterozygous missense mutations in the TWIST1 gene (7p21.1) were found in both reported individuals.  These appear to have arisen de novo.

Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400) in which some of the same skeletal features are found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition but individual malformations may require attention.  The lid colobomas were repaired in the female but corneal exposure remained and corneal scarring and phthisis developed in the right eye.  The left eye retained some vision ("able to see large objects").

References
Article Title: 

Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans

Kim S, Twigg SRF, Scanlon VA, Chandra A, Hansen TJ, Alsubait A, Fenwick AL, McGowan SJ, Lord H, Lester T, Sweeney E, Weber A, Cox H, Wilkie AOM, Golden A, Corsi AK. Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 1;26(11):2118-2132.

PubMed ID: 
28369379

Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis

Miller KA, Twigg SR, McGowan SJ, Phipps JM, Fenwick AL, Johnson D, Wall SA, Noons P, Rees KE, Tidey EA, Craft J, Taylor J, Taylor JC, Goos JA, Swagemakers SM, Mathijssen IM, van der Spek PJ, Lord H, Lester T, Abid N, Cilliers D, Hurst JA, Morton JE, Sweeney E, Weber A, Wilson LC, Wilkie AO. Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis. J Med Genet. 2017 Apr;54(4):260-268.

PubMed ID: 
27884935

Sweeney-Cox Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ophthalmologic examinations have not been reported.  However, periorbital and facial anomalies were present in the two reported patients.  Pseudoproptosis (considered secondary to deficiency of the bony orbits) accentuated by midface hypoplasia, and upper lid colobomas have been observed.  The globes were described as "small" although there were no "concerns" regarding vision in the single male patient.  Electrodiagnostic tests were "normal."    

Systemic Features: 

Multiple anomalies and malformations were present in the two reported patients, an unrelated male and female.  Severe facial dysmorphism secondary to uneven skull bone formation and suture closures is present.  The metopic ridge is prominent, the orbital bones are deficient, the occiput is flattened, the anterior fontanel and coronal sutures are wide.  Midfacial hypoplasia is present.  The neck is broad and the shoulders are narrow.  The fingers are long and the distal phalanges may be fixed in flexion.  The ears are low-set, small, and cupped.  The palate is high and may be cleft.  Cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers has been observed.  Variable developmental delays/learning difficulties are present.

The male had an imperforate anus, undescended testes and a 60 dB hearing loss.  The female had a midline cleft palate with choanal atresia requiring a tracheostomy from birth and required fundoplication and gastrostomy for gastroesophageal reflux.  

Genetics

Heterozygous missense mutations in the TWIST1 gene (7p21.1) were found in both reported individuals.  These appear to have arisen de novo.

Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400) in which some of the same skeletal features are found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition but individual malformations may require attention.  The lid colobomas were repaired in the female but corneal exposure remained and corneal scarring and phthisis developed in the right eye.  The left eye retained some vision ("able to see large objects").

References
Article Title: 

Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans

Kim S, Twigg SRF, Scanlon VA, Chandra A, Hansen TJ, Alsubait A, Fenwick AL, McGowan SJ, Lord H, Lester T, Sweeney E, Weber A, Cox H, Wilkie AOM, Golden A, Corsi AK. Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 1;26(11):2118-2132.

PubMed ID: 
28369379

Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis

Miller KA, Twigg SR, McGowan SJ, Phipps JM, Fenwick AL, Johnson D, Wall SA, Noons P, Rees KE, Tidey EA, Craft J, Taylor J, Taylor JC, Goos JA, Swagemakers SM, Mathijssen IM, van der Spek PJ, Lord H, Lester T, Abid N, Cilliers D, Hurst JA, Morton JE, Sweeney E, Weber A, Wilson LC, Wilkie AO. Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis. J Med Genet. 2017 Apr;54(4):260-268.

PubMed ID: 
27884935

Al Kaissi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reported facial dysmorphism features include periocular anomalies of ptosis, hypertelorism, down-slanting lid fissures, and epicanthal folds.  

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is somewhat variable.  Intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with hypotonia are common.   Moderate to severe intellectual disability is usually present and speech may be severely delayed.  The forehead is narrow, the nasal tip is broad, the nasal bridge is depressed, and the ears are low-set and posteriorly rotated.   Small hands and sometimes joint laxity are commonly present.  Cervical spine abnormalities including clefting, improper fusion, and segmentation anomalies are common.

Brain MRI may be normal but a small corpus callosum was present in some patients.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the CDK10 gene (16q24.3) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays

Windpassinger C, Piard J, Bonnard C, Alfadhel M, Lim S, Bisteau X, Blouin S, Ali NB, Ng AYJ, Lu H, Tohari S, Talib SZA, van Hul N, Caldez MJ, Van Maldergem L, Yigit G, Kayserili H, Youssef SA, Coppola V, de Bruin A, Tessarollo L, Choi H, Rupp V, Roetzer K, Roschger P, Klaushofer K, Altmuller J, Roy S, Venkatesh B, Ganger R, Grill F, Ben Chehida F, Wollnik B, Altunoglu U, Al Kaissi A, Reversade B, Kaldis P. CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Sep 7;101(3):391-403.

PubMed ID: 
28886341

Blepharocheilodontic Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyelids are disproportionately large with ectropion of the lower lid.  There is often a duplicate row of lashes (distichiasis) and there may be lagophthalmos and euryblepharon present.  Hypertelorism has been described. 

Systemic Features: 

The teeth are often conical and some may be absent.  Cleft lip and palate are often present.  The forehead is prominent and the frontal hairline is posteriorly located.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the CTNND1 gene (11q12.1) are responsible for this condition.

Blepharocheilodontic syndrome 1 results from heterozygous mutations in the CDH1 gene (16q22.1).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment consists of surgical repair of dental, eyelid, and oral defects.

References
Article Title: 

3MC Syndromes

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The major ocular features involve the periocular structures.  These result in the typical facial dysmorphism and include hypertelorism, blepharoptosis, blepharophimosis, and highly arched eyebrows. Ptosis, unilateral or bilateral, can be present.

One patient was reported to have unilateral aniridia and a corneal leucoma.  Tear duct atresia was reported in another individual.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic features are highly variable in their presence and severity.   Facial clefting, growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are present about half the time in some combination while craniosynostosis, urogenital anomalies, and radioulnar synostosis are seen in about a third of individuals.  More rare features include cardiac defects and abdominal midline defects (omphalocele and diastasis recti).

Genetics

This condition (3MC) is now postulated to include at least 3 disorders (Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale syndromes) and considered here as a single autosomal recessive disease complex with overlapping clinical features that requires genotyping for diagnostic separation.  These are: 3MC1 syndrome (257920) resulting from homozygous mutations in the MASP1 gene (3q27.3), 3MC2 syndrome (265050) caused by mutations in the COLEC11 gene (2p25.3) and 3MC3 (248340) with mutations in the COLEC10 gene (8q24.12).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective general treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development

Munye MM, Diaz-Font A, Ocaka L, Henriksen ML, Lees M, Brady A, Jenkins D, Morton J, Hansen SW, Bacchelli C, Beales PL, Hernandez-Hernandez V. COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development. PLoS Genet. 2017 Mar 16;13(3):e1006679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006679. eCollection 2017 Mar.

PubMed ID: 
28301481

Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome

Rooryck C, Diaz-Font A, Osborn DP, Chabchoub E, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Shamseldin H, Kenny J, Waters A, Jenkins D, Kaissi AA, Leal GF, Dallapiccola B, Carnevale F, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Lees M, Hennekam R, Stanier P, Burns AJ, Peeters H, Alkuraya FS, Beales PL. Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Mar;43(3):197-203.

PubMed ID: 
21258343

Congenital Heart Defects, Dysmorphic Facies, and Intellectual Developmental Disorder

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The dysmorphic facial features primarily involve the periocular structures.  These include hypertelorism, ptosis, epicanthal folds, strabismus and upslanted palpebral fissures.

Systemic Features: 

Septal defects involving both the atrium and the ventricle are consistently present.  Pulmonary valve abnormalities are present in some patients.

Posteriorly rotated pinnae and a small mouth with a thin upper lip have been observed.  Camptodactyly and clinodactyly are common.  Some patients have mild microcephaly.

Global developmental delay is a consistent feature manifest as delays in walking and speech and eventual intellectual disability.  Feeding difficulties are common.  Hypotonia and hypermobile joints are often noted.  Imaging of the brain may reveal agenesis of the corpus callosum, incomplete formation of the inferior vermis, and leukomalacia of periventricular tissue.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations have been identified in the CDK13 gene (7p14.1) in seven unrelated individuals.  Heterozygous parents may not have the full phenotype.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the generalized condition.

References
Article Title: 

Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing

Sifrim A, Hitz MP, Wilsdon A, Breckpot J, Turki SH, Thienpont B, McRae J, Fitzgerald TW, Singh T, Swaminathan GJ, Prigmore E, Rajan D, Abdul-Khaliq H, Banka S, Bauer UM, Bentham J, Berger F, Bhattacharya S, Bu'Lock F, Canham N, Colgiu IG, Cosgrove C, Cox H, Daehnert I, Daly A, Danesh J, Fryer A, Gewillig M, Hobson E, Hoff K, Homfray T; INTERVAL Study., Kahlert AK, Ketley A, Kramer HH, Lachlan K, Lampe AK, Louw JJ, Manickara AK, Manase D, McCarthy KP, Metcalfe K, Moore C, Newbury-Ecob R, Omer SO, Ouwehand WH, Park SM, Parker MJ, Pickardt T, Pollard MO, Robert L, Roberts DJ, Sambrook J, Setchfield K, Stiller B, Thornborough C, Toka O, Watkins H, Williams D, Wright M, Mital S, Daubeney PE, Keavney B, Goodship J; UK10K Consortium., Abu-Sulaiman RM, Klaassen S, Wright CF, Firth HV, Barrett JC, Devriendt K, FitzPatrick DR, Brook JD; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study., Hurles ME. Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing. Nat Genet. 2016 Sep;48(9):1060-5.

PubMed ID: 
27479907

Meester-Loeys Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A variety of nondiagnostic facial features are present at birth including hypertelorism, downward slanting lid fissures, proptosis, frontal bossing, and midface hypoplasia.

Systemic Features: 

Aortic aneurysms with or without dissection have been diagnosed as early as 1 year of age but may not be apparent until teenage years.  Pectus deformities, joint hypermobility, and skin striae may be seen. Hypertrichosis, evidence of skeletal dysplasia such as hip dislocation, platyspondyly, phalangeal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, relative macrocephaly, dysplastic epiphyses of the long bones, and cervical spine instability are often present.

Genetics

This X-linked disorder is caused by a mutation in the BGN gene (Xp28).  No male-to-male transmission has been reported although both sexes are affected.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Individual deformities might be surgically repaired.

References
Article Title: 

Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

Meester JA, Vandeweyer G, Pintelon I, Lammens M, Van Hoorick L, De Belder S, Waitzman K, Young L, Markham LW, Vogt J, Richer J, Beauchesne LM, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Prsa M, Dhillon R, Reyniers E, Dietz HC, Wuyts W, Mortier G, Verstraeten A, Van Laer L, Loeys BL. Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Genet Med. 2016 Sep 15. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.126. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
27632686

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