hypertelorism

3MC Syndromes

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The major ocular features involve the periocular structures.  These result in the typical facial dysmorphism and include hypertelorism, blepharoptosis, blepharophimosis, and highly arched eyebrows. Ptosis, unilateral or bilateral, can be present.

One patient was reported to have unilateral aniridia and a corneal leucoma.  Tear duct atresia was reported in another individual.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic features are highly variable in their presence and severity.   Facial clefting, growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are present about half the time in some combination while craniosynostosis, urogenital anomalies, and radioulnar synostosis are seen in about a third of individuals.  More rare features include cardiac defects and abdominal midline defects (omphalocele and diastasis recti).

Genetics

This condition (3MC) is now postulated to include at least 3 disorders (Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale syndromes) and considered here as a single autosomal recessive disease complex with overlapping clinical features that requires genotyping for diagnostic separation.  These are: 3MC1 syndrome (257920) resulting from homozygous mutations in the MASP1 gene (3q27.3), 3MC2 syndrome (265050) caused by mutations in the COLEC11 gene (2p25.3) and 3MC3 (248340) with mutations in the COLEC10 gene (8q24.12).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective general treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development

Munye MM, Diaz-Font A, Ocaka L, Henriksen ML, Lees M, Brady A, Jenkins D, Morton J, Hansen SW, Bacchelli C, Beales PL, Hernandez-Hernandez V. COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development. PLoS Genet. 2017 Mar 16;13(3):e1006679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006679. eCollection 2017 Mar.

PubMed ID: 
28301481

Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome

Rooryck C, Diaz-Font A, Osborn DP, Chabchoub E, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Shamseldin H, Kenny J, Waters A, Jenkins D, Kaissi AA, Leal GF, Dallapiccola B, Carnevale F, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Lees M, Hennekam R, Stanier P, Burns AJ, Peeters H, Alkuraya FS, Beales PL. Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Mar;43(3):197-203.

PubMed ID: 
21258343

Congenital Heart Defects, Dysmorphic Facies, and Intellectual Developmental Disorder

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The dysmorphic facial features primarily involve the periocular structures.  These include hypertelorism, ptosis, epicanthal folds, strabismus and upslanted palpebral fissures.

Systemic Features: 

Septal defects involving both the atrium and the ventricle are consistently present.  Pulmonary valve abnormalities are present in some patients.

Posteriorly rotated pinnae and a small mouth with a thin upper lip have been observed.  Camptodactyly and clinodactyly are common.  Some patients have mild microcephaly.

Global developmental delay is a consistent feature manifest as delays in walking and speech and eventual intellectual disability.  Feeding difficulties are common.  Hypotonia and hypermobile joints are often noted.  Imaging of the brain may reveal agenesis of the corpus callosum, incomplete formation of the inferior vermis, and leukomalacia of periventricular tissue.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations have been identified in the CDK13 gene (7p14.1) in seven unrelated individuals.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the generalized condition.

References
Article Title: 

Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing

Sifrim A, Hitz MP, Wilsdon A, Breckpot J, Turki SH, Thienpont B, McRae J, Fitzgerald TW, Singh T, Swaminathan GJ, Prigmore E, Rajan D, Abdul-Khaliq H, Banka S, Bauer UM, Bentham J, Berger F, Bhattacharya S, Bu'Lock F, Canham N, Colgiu IG, Cosgrove C, Cox H, Daehnert I, Daly A, Danesh J, Fryer A, Gewillig M, Hobson E, Hoff K, Homfray T; INTERVAL Study., Kahlert AK, Ketley A, Kramer HH, Lachlan K, Lampe AK, Louw JJ, Manickara AK, Manase D, McCarthy KP, Metcalfe K, Moore C, Newbury-Ecob R, Omer SO, Ouwehand WH, Park SM, Parker MJ, Pickardt T, Pollard MO, Robert L, Roberts DJ, Sambrook J, Setchfield K, Stiller B, Thornborough C, Toka O, Watkins H, Williams D, Wright M, Mital S, Daubeney PE, Keavney B, Goodship J; UK10K Consortium., Abu-Sulaiman RM, Klaassen S, Wright CF, Firth HV, Barrett JC, Devriendt K, FitzPatrick DR, Brook JD; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study., Hurles ME. Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing. Nat Genet. 2016 Sep;48(9):1060-5.

PubMed ID: 
27479907

Meester-Loeys Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A variety of nondiagnostic facial features are present at birth including hypertelorism, downward slanting lid fissures, proptosis, frontal bossing, and midface hypoplasia.

Systemic Features: 

Aortic aneurysms with or without dissection have been diagnosed as early as 1 year of age but may not be apparent until teenage years.  Pectus deformities, joint hypermobility, and skin striae are often present. Hypertrichosis, evidence of skeletal dysplasia such as hip dislocation, platyspondyly, phalangeal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, relative macrocephaly, dysplastic epiphyses of the long bones, and cervical spine instability are often present.

Genetics

This X-linked disorder is caused by a mutation in the BGN gene (Xp28).  No male-to-male transmission has been reported although both sexes are affected.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Individual deformities might be surgically repaired.

References
Article Title: 

Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

Meester JA, Vandeweyer G, Pintelon I, Lammens M, Van Hoorick L, De Belder S, Waitzman K, Young L, Markham LW, Vogt J, Richer J, Beauchesne LM, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Prsa M, Dhillon R, Reyniers E, Dietz HC, Wuyts W, Mortier G, Verstraeten A, Van Laer L, Loeys BL. Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Genet Med. 2016 Sep 15. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.126. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
27632686

Developmental Delay with Short Stature, Dysmorphic Features, and Sparse Hair

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients may have downward-slanting lid fissures, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and sparse eyebrows and eyelashes.

Systemic Features: 

Patients have scaphocephaly with or without craniosynostosis and facial dysmorphism with a depressed nasal bridge and micrognathia.  Short stature, sparse hair, and developmental delay are characteristic.  Hypoplastic toenails and dental anomalies are present.  Brain imaging may show Dandy-Walker malformations and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia.  The kidneys may have focal interstitial nephritis and there may be intermittent hematuria and proteinuria in the presence of otherwise normal renal function.  Cardiac septal defects have been noted.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the DPH1 gene (17p13.3) are responsible for this disorder.  Two families have been reported with this condition. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Matching two cohorts validates DPH1 as a gene responsible for autosomal recessive intellectual disability with short stature, craniofacial, and ectodermal anomalies

Loucks CM, Parboosingh JS, Shaheen R, Bernier FP, McLeod DR, Seidahmed MZ, Puffenberger EG, Ober C, Hegele RA, Boycott KM, Alkuraya FS, Innes AM. Matching two independent cohorts validates DPH1 as a gene responsible for autosomal recessive intellectual disability with short stature, craniofacial, and ectodermal anomalies. Hum Mutat. 2015 Oct;36(10):1015-9.

PubMed ID: 
26220823

Accelerating novel candidate gene discovery in neurogenetic disorders via whole-exome sequencing of prescreened multiplex consanguineous families

Alazami AM, Patel N, Shamseldin HE, Anazi S, Al-Dosari MS, Alzahrani F, Hijazi H, Alshammari M, Aldahmesh MA, Salih MA, Faqeih E, Alhashem A, Bashiri FA, Al-Owain M, Kentab AY, Sogaty S, Al Tala S, Temsah MH, Tulbah M, Aljelaify RF, Alshahwan SA, Seidahmed MZ, Alhadid AA, Aldhalaan H, AlQallaf F, Kurdi W, Alfadhel M, Babay Z, Alsogheer M, Kaya N, Al-Hassnan ZN, Abdel-Salam GM, Al-Sannaa N, Al Mutairi F, El Khashab HY, Bohlega S, Jia X, Nguyen HC, Hammami R, Adly N, Mohamed JY, Abdulwahab F, Ibrahim N, Naim EA, Al-Younes B, Meyer BF, Hashem M, Shaheen R, Xiong Y, Abouelhoda M, Aldeeri AA, Monies DM, Alkuraya FS. Accelerating novel candidate gene discovery in neurogenetic disorders via whole-exome sequencing of prescreened multiplex consanguineous families. Cell Rep. 2015 Jan 13;10(2):148-61.

PubMed ID: 
25558065

Immunodeficiency-Centromeric Instability-Facial Anomalies Syndrome 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have been described as having variable oculofacial features including epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, strabismus, and 'tapetoretinal degeneration'.    

Systemic Features: 

The full phenotype is variable and unknown based on the 5 reported patients from 4 families of whom 3 were consanguineous.  Recurrent infections (especially respiratory and otitis media) seem to be among the most consistent features.  Others include intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay including psychomotor delays, a flat midface with various anomalies, low-set ears, renal dysgenesis, polydactyly, severe agammaglobulinemia, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism.  Normal T-cell function and normal B cells are present.  Conductive hearing loss, polydactyly, and scoliosis may be features as well.  Two of the 5 reported patients with ICF3 were reported to have mental retardation.  One patient died at the age of 26 years.

Genetics

Homozygosity of CDCA7 (2q31.1) mutations with centromeric instability and hypomethylation of selected juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions is responsible for this (ICF3) autosomal recessive condition.  There is genetic heterogeneity in ICF (ICF1, ICF2, ICF3, and ICF4 [see 242860).   

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome

Thijssen PE, Ito Y, Grillo G, Wang J, Velasco G, Nitta H, Unoki M, Yoshihara M, Suyama M, Sun Y, Lemmers RJ, de Greef JC, Gennery A, Picco P, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Gungor T, Reisli I, Picard C, Kebaili K, Roquelaure B, Iwai T, Kondo I, Kubota T, van Ostaijen-Ten Dam MM, van Tol MJ, Weemaes C, Francastel C, van der Maarel SM, Sasaki H. Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 28;6:7870.

PubMed ID: 
26216346

Vici Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Congenital cataracts, both unilateral and bilateral are common.  The fundus appears hypopigmented. Nystagmus, optic neuropathy, and mild ptosis have been reported.  Nothing is known regarding acuity. 

Systemic Features: 

Infants at birth have striking hypotonia with a weak cry and feeding difficulties.  Dysmorphic features such as micrognathia, microcephaly, low-set ears, some degree of generalized hypopigmentation (hair and skin), and a broad nose with a long philtrum may be present. The face may appear triangular.  Cleft lip and palate may be present.  Evidence of cardiac dysfunction may also be present early with both dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reported.  Hearing loss has been reported in some individuals.  Recurrent infections are common and immunologic studies have revealed, in some patients, granulocytopenia, low T cell counts (primarily T4+ cells), thymic dysplasia, and low levels of IgG.  Seizures may occur.  Liver dysfunction has been variably reported.

Neurological and brain evaluations have reported agenesis of the corpus callosum, defects in the septum pellucidum, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis along with pontocerebellar hypoplasia.  Psychomotor retardation is severe in most individuals along with general growth retardation.

Histologic studies of skeletal muscle fibers have shown considerable variation in fiber size, centralized nuclei, fucsinophilic inclusions, and enlarged abnormal mitochondria.  Other central nervous system abnormalities include in some individuals a paucity of white matter, schizencephaly, neuronal heterotopias, and enlargement of the ventricles.

The cumulative effects of these multiorgan abnormalities lead to death within the first year or two of life, generally of heart failure or sepsis. 

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the EPG5 gene (18q12.3) have been associated with this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Vici syndrome: a

Byrne S, Dionisi-Vici C, Smith L, Gautel M, Jungbluth H. Vici syndrome: a
review
. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 Feb 29;11(1):

PubMed ID: 
4772338

Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy

Cullup T, Kho AL, Dionisi-Vici C, Brandmeier B, Smith F, Urry Z, Simpson MA, Yau S, Bertini E, McClelland V, Al-Owain M, Koelker S, Koerner C, Hoffmann GF, Wijburg FA, ten Hoedt AE, Rogers RC, Manchester D, Miyata R, Hayashi M, Said E, Soler D, Kroisel PM, Windpassinger C, Filloux FM, Al-Kaabi S, Hertecant J, Del Campo M, Buk S, Bodi I, Goebel HH, Sewry CA, Abbs S, Mohammed S, Josifova D, Gautel M, Jungbluth H. Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy. Nat Genet. 2013 Jan;45(1):83-7.

PubMed ID: 
23222957

Basel-Vanagaite-Smirin-Yosef Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes appear abnormally far apart.  Ptosis, microcornea, congenital cataracts, sparse eyebrows, and strabismus are usually present.  Epicanthal folds are often seen.

Systemic Features: 

Psychomotor development is severely delayed and with delay or absence of milestones.  DTRs are often hyperactive but some infants are described as hypotonic.  Some individuals have seizures.  There may be a nevus flammeus simplex lesion on the forehead and body hair is sparse.  Cleft palate, cardiac septal defects, hypospadius, thin corpus callosum and cerebral ventricular dilation have been observed.  The upper lip may have a tented morphology with everted lower lip vermilion. A short philtrum is common. 

Genetics

A homozygous missense mutation in the MED25 gene (19q13.33) has been reported and the transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No known treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Homozygous MED25 mutation implicated in eye-intellectual disability syndrome

Basel-Vanagaite L, Smirin-Yosef P, Essakow JL, Tzur S, Lagovsky I, Maya I, Pasmanik-Chor M, Yeheskel A, Konen O, Orenstein N, Weisz Hubshman M, Drasinover V, Magal N, Peretz Amit G, Zalzstein Y, Zeharia A, Shohat M, Straussberg R, Monte D, Salmon-Divon M, Behar DM. Homozygous MED25 mutation implicated in eye-intellectual disability syndrome. Hum Genet. 2015 Jun;134(6):577-87.

PubMed ID: 
25792360

Anterior Segment, Brain, and Facial Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The interpupillary distance appears abnormally wide.  VEP and ERG responses suggest abnormal retinal bipolar cells.  Specular microscopy reveals variable sizes and shapes of corneal endothelial cells with scattered vesicles and large 'holes' in the usual hexagonal array.  The iris may be malformed (no collarette, stromal hypoplasia) and there may be peripheral iridocorneal adhesions.  Elevated IOP, band keratopathy, corneal clouding, and keratoconus have been reported.  Visual acuity is impaired to some extent, from near normal (20/25) to NLP.  Progressive optic atrophy was observed in one patient.

Systemic Features: 

Four members of a 3 generation family had malformed pinnae (posterior placement and rotation).  Other features variably present were an empty sella turcica, posterior fossa cyst, and hydrocephalus. The propositus also was found to have abnormal auditory bipolar cells based on the audiogram and audio-evoked brainstem responses.

Genetics

Based on direct sequencing in one family (3 adults and 1 child), this condition seems to be caused by heterozygous variations or mutations in the VSX1 gene (20p11.21). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Monitoring for glaucoma and appropriate treatment are indicated.  Hearing tests should be performed early.  The usual treatments for keratoconus should be considered.  Excess brain fluid may need surgical drainage.

.

References
Article Title: 

Barber-Say Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular features consist mainly of skin changes in the lids including hyperlaxity and redundancy.  There may be ectropion of the lower eyelids and sparsity of the eyebrows.  Some evidence of micro- or ablepharon is often present.  Hypertelorism and exophthalmia have been described.

Systemic Features: 

Multiple external congenital anomalies are present at birth including skin laxity, hypertrichosis (especially of the forehead, neck and back), and low-set and malformed pinnae.  Macrostomia and thin lips with redundant facial skin are often evident.  The nose appears bulbous.  The thoracic skin can be atrophic and the nipples may be hypoplastic.  Hypospadias has been reported.  A highly arched or cleft palate may be present and some individuals have a conductive hearing loss.  The teeth are small and eruption may be delayed.  Cognitive deficits may be present and mental retardation has been reported. 

Genetics

Based on genotyping and the limited number of reported pedigrees, inheritance most likely follows an autosomal dominant pattern.  Direct parent to child transmission has been reported.  Detailed examination of parents sometimes reveals mild features that are easily missed.  Mutations in the TWIST2 gene have been found in 10 unrelated individuals with Barber-Say syndrome.

TWIST2 mutations have also been found in Setleis syndrome (227260) and in ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (200110).  These conditions have some clinical features in common with Barber-Say syndrome.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment for this disorder but correction of selected anomalies such as ectropion and cleft palate may be indicated.

References
Article Title: 

Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes

Marchegiani S, Davis T, Tessadori F, van Haaften G, Brancati F, Hoischen A, Huang H, Valkanas E, Pusey B, Schanze D, Venselaar H, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Wolfe LA, Tifft CJ, Zerfas PM, Zambruno G, Kariminejad A, Sabbagh-Kermani F, Lee J, Tsokos MG, Lee CC, Ferraz V, da Silva EM, Stevens CA, Roche N, Bartsch O, Farndon P, Bermejo-Sanchez E, Brooks BP, Maduro V, Dallapiccola B, Ramos FJ, Chung HY, Le Caignec C, Martins F, Jacyk WK, Mazzanti L, Brunner HG, Bakkers J, Lin S, Malicdan MC, Boerkoel CF, Gahl WA, de Vries BB, van Haelst MM, Zenker M, Markello TC. Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Jul 2;97(1):99-110.

PubMed ID: 
26119818

Cole-Carpenter Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Postnatally the eyes are prominent and hypertelorism has been reported.  The palpebral fissures slant downward and the root of the nose is angular. 

Systemic Features: 

This is primarily a skeletal disorder with impaired skull ossification and multiple bone fractures of prenatal origin.  It is sometimes confused with forms of osteogenesis imperfecta.  The skull is poorly ossified and frequent diaphyseal fractures of the long bones occur leading to motor delays and short stature.  Rib fractures are sometimes seen. Intelligence seems to be normal.  A receding chin has been noted and the hard palate is highly vaulted.  The midface is flat.

Genetics

This disorder results from compound heterozygous mutations in the SEC24D gene (4q26).  Only a few patients have been reported.

For a somewhat similar but autosomal dominant disorder see Cole-Carpenter Syndrome 1 (112240).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Physical activity should be restricted to noncontact sports and where the cranium has ossification defects a helmet should be worn.  Fractures should be appropriately treated.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in SEC24D, Encoding a Component of the COPII Machinery, Cause a Syndromic Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Garbes L, Kim K, Riess A, Hoyer-Kuhn H, Beleggia F, Bevot A, Kim MJ, Huh YH, Kweon HS, Savarirayan R, Amor D, Kakadia PM, Lindig T, Kagan KO, Becker J, Boyadjiev SA, Wollnik B, Semler O, Bohlander SK, Kim J, Netzer C. Mutations in SEC24D, Encoding a Component of the COPII Machinery, Cause a Syndromic Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Mar 5;96(3):432-9.

PubMed ID: 
25683121

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