frontal bossing

Retinitis Pigmentosa With or Without Skeletal Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Downward slanting lid fissures may be detectable at birth as part of the general craniofacial dysmorphism.  Some degree of night blindness causes symptoms by the second decade of life and constricted visual fields with pigmented retinopathy and vessel narrowing can be detected.  The ERG shows reduced or absent responses.  The retinal phenotype is progressive.   

Systemic Features: 

Most but not all patients have skeletal anomalies.  Nonspecific craniofacial dysmorphology features are frequently present including frontal bossing, macrocephaly, low-set ears, large columella, hypoplastic nares, and malar hypoplasia.  A short neck, brachydactyly, and overall shortness of stature are often present.  Some individuals have nail dysplasia.  The proximal femoral metaphyses sometimes show chondrodysplasia.

There is often some degree of intellectual disability and there may be delays in speech, feeding, and walking.

Genetics

This disorder results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the CWC27 gene (5q12.3).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported.  Low vision aids and night vision devices may be helpful, especially for educational activities.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies

Xu M, Xie YA, Abouzeid H, Gordon CT, Fiorentino A, Sun Z, Lehman A, Osman IS, Dharmat R, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Bapst-Wicht L, Babino D, Arno G, Busetto V, Zhao L, Li H, Lopez-Martinez MA, Azevedo LF, Hubert L, Pontikos N, Eblimit A, Lorda-Sanchez I, Kheir V, Plagnol V, Oufadem M, Soens ZT, Yang L, Bole-Feysot C, Pfundt R, Allaman-Pillet N, Nitschke P, Cheetham ME, Lyonnet S, Agrawal SA, Li H, Pinton G, Michaelides M, Besmond C, Li Y, Yuan Z, von Lintig J, Webster AR, Le Hir H, Stoilov P; UK Inherited Retinal Dystrophy Consortium., Amiel J, Hardcastle AJ, Ayuso C, Sui R, Chen R, Allikmets R, Schorderet DF. Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Apr 6;100(4):592-604.

PubMed ID: 
28285769

Coloboma, Microphthalmia, Albinism, and Deafness

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A 5 year old male has been described with uveal colobomas in microphthalmic eyes plus small corneas with a pannus, dense cataracts, translucent irides, and hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes.  A brain MRI showed hypoplasia of the optic nerves and chiasm.   

A 9 month old female from another family had severe microphthalmia and small optic nerves.  The internal ocular features were not reported.

Systemic Features: 

The complete phenotype is uncertain since it is based on only two reported and unrelated individuals.  The head circumference one one patient was consistent with macrocephaly accompanied by frontal bossing, shallow orbits, preauricular pits and posteriorly rotated ears.  A skeletal survey revealed evidence for osteopetrosis.  He had a sensorineural hearing deficit said to be congenital in onset.

The other patient, a 9 month old female, belonged to another nonconsanguineous family, and had similar skeletal and craniofacial features with the addition of micrognathia and hypotonia.  Congenital neurosensory hearing loss and general lack of pigmentation were noted.

All four parents have congenital sensorineural hearing loss, blue irides and fair skin with premature graying of hair.  Four sibs in the two families have phenotypes similar to that of the parents.  Only one child, a female, had no features of the phenotype.

Genetics

This condition, so far reported only in a male and a female in unrelated families, is the result of doubly heterozygous mutations in the MITF gene (3p13).  One mutation that causes Waardenburg syndrome 2  (WS2A) (193510) is combined with a dominant-negative allele (c.952_954delAGA [p.Arg318del]) to produce the phenotype.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Meester-Loeys Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A variety of nondiagnostic facial features are present at birth including hypertelorism, downward slanting lid fissures, proptosis, frontal bossing, and midface hypoplasia.

Systemic Features: 

Aortic aneurysms with or without dissection have been diagnosed as early as 1 year of age but may not be apparent until teenage years.  Pectus deformities, joint hypermobility, and skin striae are often present. Hypertrichosis, evidence of skeletal dysplasia such as hip dislocation, platyspondyly, phalangeal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, relative macrocephaly, dysplastic epiphyses of the long bones, and cervical spine instability are often present.

Genetics

This X-linked disorder is caused by a mutation in the BGN gene (Xp28).  No male-to-male transmission has been reported although both sexes are affected.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Individual deformities might be surgically repaired.

References
Article Title: 

Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

Meester JA, Vandeweyer G, Pintelon I, Lammens M, Van Hoorick L, De Belder S, Waitzman K, Young L, Markham LW, Vogt J, Richer J, Beauchesne LM, Unger S, Superti-Furga A, Prsa M, Dhillon R, Reyniers E, Dietz HC, Wuyts W, Mortier G, Verstraeten A, Van Laer L, Loeys BL. Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked biglycan gene cause a severe syndromic form of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Genet Med. 2016 Sep 15. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.126. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
27632686

ZTTK Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes are deep-set and the palpebral fissures slant downward.  Optic atrophy is often present.  The majority of individuals have poor visual responses which may also be attributed to central or cortical impairment.  Strabismus and nystagmus are frequently present.

Systemic Features: 

ZTTK syndrome is multisystem malformation and developmental disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation.  The facial features might suggest the diagnosis at birth but most of the signs are nonspecific including frontal bossing, underdevelopment of the midface, facial asymmetry, low-set ears, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, and a short philtrum.  Poor feeding and hypotonia in the neonatal period are usually present and physical growth is subnormal resulting in short stature.

Brain imaging may show abnormal gyral patterns, ventriculomegaly, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, arachnoid cysts, and loss of periventricular white matter.  About half of patients develop seizures and many have intellectual disabilities.  Spinal anomalies include hemivertebrae with scoliosis and/or kyphosis.  Other skeletal features include joint laxity in some patients and contractures in others.  Arachnodactyly, craniosynostosis, and rib anomalies have been reported.  There may be malformations in the GI, GU, and cardiac systems while immune and coagulation abnormalities have also been reported.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the SON gene (21q22.11) have been identified in patients with this condition.  They may cause truncation of the gene product with haploinsufficiency or, in other patients, a frameshift in the reading.  The SON gene is a master RNA splicing regulator that impacts neurodevelopment.

Virtually all cases are the result of de novo mutations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.  Physical therapy and assistive devices may be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive

Tokita MJ, Braxton AA, Shao Y, Lewis AM, Vincent M, Kury S, Besnard T, Isidor B, Latypova X, Bezieau S, Liu P, Motter CS, Melver CW, Robin NH, Infante EM, McGuire M, El-Gharbawy A, Littlejohn RO, McLean SD, Bi W, Bacino CA, Lalani SR, Scott DA, Eng CM, Yang Y, Schaaf CP, Walkiewicz MA. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):720-7.

PubMed ID: 
27545676

De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome

Kim JH, Shinde DN, Reijnders MR, Hauser NS, Belmonte RL, Wilson GR, Bosch DG, Bubulya PA, Shashi V, Petrovski S, Stone JK, Park EY, Veltman JA, Sinnema M, Stumpel CT, Draaisma JM, Nicolai J; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Yntema HG, Lindstrom K, de Vries BB, Jewett T, Santoro SL, Vogt J; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, Bachman KK, Seeley AH, Krokosky A, Turner C, Rohena L, Hempel M, Kortum F, Lessel D, Neu A, Strom TM, Wieczorek D, Bramswig N, Laccone FA, Behunova J, Rehder H, Gordon CT, Rio M, Romana S, Tang S, El-Khechen D, Cho MT, McWalter K, Douglas G, Baskin B, Begtrup A, Funari T, Schoch K, Stegmann AP, Stevens SJ, Zhang DE, Traver D, Yao X, MacArthur DG, Brunner HG, Mancini GM, Myers RM, Owen LB, Lim ST, Stachura DL, Vissers LE, Ahn EY. De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):711-9.

PubMed ID: 
27545680

Cleft Palate, Psychomotor Retardation, and Distinctive Facial Features

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The facial dysmorphism is present at birth together with the cleft palate.  Downslanting lid fissures, widely spaced eyes, and ptosis may be present.  Eyebrows have been described as sparse in one patient.  Strabismus and ocular apraxia are present in some children. 

Systemic Features: 

Three patients have been reported, one of whom also had a second deletion in a gene implicated in the Kabuki syndrome.  This individual had hypertrichosis and synophyrys whereas the others had sparse eyebrow and temporal hair.  The teeth are malformed with some conically shaped and widely spaced.  The forehead is prominent and the fingers are tapered and brachydactylous with 5th finger clinodactyly.

There are significant delays in achieving developmental milestones.  Hypotonia has been described.  Speech and walking in particular may be delayed for several years.   Physical growth may be delayed as well.  A variety of brain anomalies have been seen in some but not all individuals.  Hypospadius and cryptorchidism have been described.  All children reported have palatal anomalies.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the KDM1A gene have been identified in two patients.  In another report a single patient had an out-of-frame 3-nucleotide deletion in the ANKRD11 gene (as sometimes found in Kabuki syndrome) plus a mutation in the KDM1A gene. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions via social networking: de novo variants in KDM1A cause developmental delay and distinctive facial features

Chong JX, Yu JH, Lorentzen P, Park KM, Jamal SM, Tabor HK, Rauch A, Saenz MS, Boltshauser E, Patterson KE, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ. Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions via social networking: de novo variants in KDM1A cause developmental delay and distinctive facial features. Genet Med. 2015 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/gim.2015.161. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
26656649

Trichomegaly Plus Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Eyelashes are described as ‘long’, and the eyebrows are bushy.  The majority of individuals have poor vision secondary to severe receptor dysfunction.  Night blindness and severe photophobia are features in some cases.  Both retinal and choroidal atrophy have been diagnosed in the first 5 years of life and most patients have a progressive and extensive pigmentary retinopathy.

Systemic Features: 

Scalp alopecia and sparse body hair is common in spite of the trichomegaly of the eyebrows and eyelashes.  Frontal bossing has been noted in some patients.  Pituitary dysfunction is suggested by low growth hormone levels, features of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and possibly hypothyroidism.

Some deficit of cognitive function is usually present and a few patients have been described as mentally retarded.  There is evidence of progressive neurological damage both centrally and peripherally. Developmental milestones are often achieved late and some individuals have been observed to regress during the first decade of life.  The peripheral neuropathy includes both sensory and motor components.  Sensory nerve action potentials may be lost in the first decade while early motor functions may regress during the same period.  Several patients have had evidence of progressive cerebellar ataxia.

Genetics

Compund heterozygous mutations in PNPLA6 (19p13.2), coding for neuropathy target esterase, have been found in several patients presumed to have this condition.  Autosomal recessive inheritance has been proposed on the basis of a single family in which an affected brother and sister were born to first cousin parents.   

The relationship of this disorder to that found in two cousins, offspring of consanguineous matings, described as ‘cone-rod congenital amaurosis associated with congenital hypertrichosis: an autosomal recessive condition’ (204110 ) is unknown.  They were described as having visual impairment from birth and profound photophobia.  Fundus changes were minimal with a bull’s eye pattern of pigment changes in the macula described as indicative of a rod-cone congenital amaurosis.  ERG responses were unrecordable.  These individuals apparently did not have other somatic, psychomotor or neurologic deficits.

Mutations in PNPLA6 occur in other conditions including a form of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (209900), and Boucher-Neuhauser Syndrome (215470) also known as Chorioretinopathy, Ataxia, Hypogonadism Syndrome in this database.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for this condition although growth hormone and testosterone supplementation have been reported to have the appropriate selective effects.

References
Article Title: 

Neuropathy target esterase impairments cause Oliver-McFarlane and Laurence-Moon syndromes

Hufnagel RB, Arno G, Hein ND, Hersheson J, Prasad M, Anderson Y, Krueger LA, Gregory LC, Stoetzel C, Jaworek TJ, Hull S, Li A, Plagnol V, Willen CM, Morgan TM, Prows CA, Hegde RS, Riazuddin S, Grabowski GA, Richardson RJ, Dieterich K, Huang T, Revesz T, Martinez-Barbera JP, Sisk RA, Jefferies C, Houlden H, Dattani MT, Fink JK, Dollfus H, Moore AT, Ahmed ZM. Neuropathy target esterase impairments cause Oliver-McFarlane and Laurence-Moon syndromes. J Med Genet. 2015 Feb;52(2):85-94.

PubMed ID: 
25480986

GAPO Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Progressive optic atrophy is considered part of this syndrome but it is not a consistent feature.  One patient with the suspected diagnosis had papilledema while other individuals may have congenital glaucoma, buphthalmos, band keratopathy, and keratoconus.  White eyelashes have been described.  Myelinated nerve retinal nerve fibers may be prominent.

Systemic Features: 

This is a rare congenital disorder with so far incomplete phenotypic delineation. The diagnosis can be made soon after birth from the general facial and body morphology.  The dysmorphism is secondary to marked bone growth retardation and metaphyseal dysplasia, resulting in a flat midface, frontal bossing, micrognathism, chest deformities, and vertebral anomalies. Psychomotor retardation is common but the extent of cognitive deficits is unknown.  The permanent teeth may begin to develop but fail to erupt (pseudoanodontia). Even primary dentition is often abnormal.  Alopecia is a feature although some individuals do have sparse body hair, at least for a period of time.  Anomalous blood vessels such as dilated scalp veins are sometimes evident.   Hypogonadism has been reported in both sexes.  Individuals are subject to recurrent ear and respiratory infections. 

Genetics

GAPO occurs in both sexes.  Homozygous mutations in the ANTXR1 gene (2p13.3) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at individual problems.  Prompt treatment of respiratory infections is important.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in ANTXR1 cause GAPO syndrome

Stranecky V, Hoischen A, Hartmannova H, Zaki MS, Chaudhary A, Zudaire E, Noskova L, Baresova V, Pristoupilova A, Hodanova K, Sovova J, Hulkova H, Piherova L, Hehir-Kwa JY, de Silva D, Senanayake MP, Farrag S, Zeman J, Martasek P, Baxova A, Afifi HH, St Croix B, Brunner HG, Temtamy S, Kmoch S. Mutations in ANTXR1 cause GAPO syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 May 2;92(5):792-9.

PubMed ID: 
23602711

Ophthalmic findings in GAPO syndrome

Ilker SS, Ozturk F, Kurt E, Temel M, Gul D, Sayli BS. Ophthalmic findings in GAPO syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1999 Jan-Feb;43(1):48-52.

PubMed ID: 
10197743

Adrenoleukodystrophy, Autosomal

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This early onset and rapidly progressive form of adrenoleukodystrophy is rare.  The early onset and rapidly fatal course of the disease has limited full delineation of the ocular features.  The most striking is the presence of 'leopard-spots' pigmentary changes in the retina.  Polar cataracts, strabismus, and epicanthal folds have also been reported. 

Systemic Features: 

Onset of symptoms occurs shortly after birth often with seizures and evidence of psychomotor deficits.  Rapid neurologic deterioration begins at about 1 year of age with death usually by the age of 3 years.  Hyperpigmentation of the skin may be apparent a few months after birth.  Opisthotonus has been observed.  The ears may be low-set, the palate is highly arched, and the nostrils anteverted.  Frontal bossing may be present.  Serum pipecolic acid and very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) can be markedly elevated.  Cystic changes in the kidneys have been reported. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive peroxismal disorder resulting from homozygous mutations in receptor gene mutations such as PEX1, PEX5, PEX13, and PEX26.

There is also an X-linked recessive adrenoleukodystrophy (300100) sometimes called ALD but it lacks some of the morphologic features and is somewhat less aggressive. 

Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy along with infantile Refsum disease (266510, 601539) and Zellweger syndrome (214100) are now classified as Zellweger spectrum or perioxismal biogenesis disorders.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is mainly supportive for associated health problems. 

References
Article Title: 

Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nearly all patients (80+ %) have microphthalmia and bilateral congenital cataracts.  Microcornea is common.  The eyebrows may be hypoplastic and the eyelashes likewise are sparse.  The lid fissures often slant down and telecanthus has been noted.  The distance between the two eyes appears reduced.  Blue sclerae, nystagmus, strabismus, and glaucoma are present in 10 to 30% of patients.

Systemic Features: 

The facies are sometimes described as 'bird-like' with a beaked nose, brachycephaly, and micrognathia.  Microstomia with a shortened ramus and forward displacement of the termporomandibular joints is characteristic. Upper airway obstruction may occur with severe respiratory distress.  The forehead is relatively prominent, the palate is highly arched, and the teeth are often small and some may be missing with misalignment of others.  A few teeth may even be present at birth (natal teeth).  Children appear petite and are often short in stature.  Scalp hair is thin, especially in the frontal and occipital areas, and the skin is atrophic.  Developmental delays are common but most patients have normal or near-normal intelligence.

Genetics

Most cases are sporadic but some have mutations in the GJA1 gene (6q21-q23.2).  Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been postulated.  Reproductive fitness may be low but rare affected individuals have had affected offspring.  Males and females are equally affected.

This disorder is allelic to oculodentodigital dysplasia (257850, 164200).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Airway obstruction may require intervention and its risks must be considered during administration of general anesthesia.  Lens opacification may be severe even early in life and requires prompt surgical intervention to prevent amblyopia.

References
Article Title: 

Chondrodysplasia Punctata 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Early onset cataracts, often sectorial, are the major ocular feature of this syndrome.  Micropthalmia and microcornea have been observed.  There may be local vitreoretinal abnormalities leading to localized detachments and retinoschisis.

Systemic Features: 

The cartilage disease in this disorder leads to short stature that is often asymmetrical.  There is considerable variation in skeletal manifestations as the spine as well as the limbs can be involved.  The skin at birth may be scaly and erythrodermic.  Later the skin pigmentation may assume a whorled pattern and hyperkeratosis appears, often in a segmental pattern consistent with X-chromosomal mosaicism.  The skin may also be ichthyotic.  The nasal bridge is often flat with frontal bossing.  Flexion contractures are sometimes seen.  Cicatricial alopecia and coarse hair are often noted in adults.

Genetics

A number of skeletal disorders are classified as chondrodysplasia punctata, and there is considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity (see also rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata [215100] in this database for an autosomal recessive form) which has yet to be worked out.  The disorder described here is an X-linked dominant disorder with lethality in males.  It results from a mutation in the EBP gene (Xp11.23-p11.22) causing difficulty in converting lanosterol to cholesterol.  The diagnosis can be confirmed by finding increased plasma accumulation of precursors of sterols 8(9)-cholestenol and 8-dehydrocholesterol. Rare severely affected males with hypotonia, seizures, cerebellar atrophy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and developmental delays have been reported. 

The X-linked recessive (CDPX1;302950), autosomal dominant tibia-metacarpal (118651), and humero-metacarpal types are not associated with cataracts.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, father affected
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cataract extraction may improve vision.  Sun protection is advised.

References
Article Title: 

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