foveal hypoplasia

Aniridia 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A 17-year-old male with this condition was diagnosed at the age of two years with bilateral iris hypoplasia.  Cataracts were seen at the age of 17 years.  There was no foveal depression.

In a 5 generation Chinese family there were additional signs including optic atrophy, ectopia lentis, pigmentary retinopathy, and 'dysplasia' of the trabecular meshwork in 5 members.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.  A single extensively studied patient, who had no developmental problems, was normal by renal ultrasound, audiometric studies, and neurologic evaluations.

Genetics

Autosomal dominant aniridia is the result of PAX6 (a transcription regulator gene) dysfunction.  In the majority of cases there are mutations in the PAX6 gene itself as in AN1.  There are reports, however, of familial aniridia in which direct PAX6 mutations have been excluded.  Two additional forms of aniridia in which there are alterations in genes that modulate the expression of PAX6 have been reported.  AN2 described here with mutations in ELP4 (a nucleotide variant within an intron of the ELP4 gene (11p13) located distal to the 3-prime end of the PAX6 gene, plus AN3 (617142) with mutations in TRIM44.  Both ELP4 and TRIM44 are regulators of the PAX6 transcription gene.

Aniridia 2 has been reported in one patient with a nucleotide variant within an intron of the ELP4 gene (11p13) located distal to the 3-prime end of the PAX6 gene.  The gene product is a cis-regulatory enhancer.  

Other evidence for aniridia resulting from regulatory modification of PAX6 gene function comes from families in which there are structural alterations such as deletions in chromosome 11, downstream of the PAX6 gene location.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment has not been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Foveal Hypoplasia 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The cardinal feature in this condition is foveal hypoplasia which is characterized by the lack of a foveal depression and continuity of all neurosensory layers across the foveal area as revealed by OCT.  This is accompanied by poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and strabismus.  Hypopigmentation of the immediate area has also been reported in some patients.  Visual acuity in one study of 9 patients ranged from 20/50 to 20/200.  The ERG and flash VEP can be normal.  Color vision has been described as normal in some individuals.

Dysgenesis of the anterior segment seems to be family-specific and consists of Axenfeld anomaly or embryotoxon.

Systemic Features: 

In most cases the only features are foveal hypoplasia with or without anterior chamber anomalies.  Three affected sisters in one family were reported to have mild developmental delay.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in SLC38A8 (16q23.3) are responsible for this disorder. 

For a somewhat similar condition of foveal hypoplasia see FVH1 (136520), which is, however, caused by a different mutation and inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment.

References
Article Title: 

Nystagmus 6, Congenital, X-linked

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

In several Chinese families, nystagmus was limited to males with onset in one case in the first 6 months.  Foveal dysplasia was present along with mottled fundus pigmentation.  Carrier females did not have nystagmus or changes in fundus pigmentation (except for one with mottling). Vision is in the range of 20/50-20/60.

Systemic Features: 

Skin and hair pigmentation was normal. No systemic disease was identified.

Genetics

Mutations in GPR143 (Xp22.2) have been identified in this form of nystagmus. The family pedigrees are consistent with X-linked recessive inheritance.

Two additional X-linked isolated nystagmus conditions are contained in this database: nystagmus 1 (310700), the result of mutations in FRMD7, and nystagmus 5 (300589) of unknown gene causation.

Several autosomal dominant forms have been linked to chromosomal regions 6p12 (NYS2; 164100), 7p11 (NYS3, 608345), 13q (NYS4, 193003), 1q31.3-q32.1, and NYS7 (614826).  Autosomal recessive inheritance has been proposed for several pedigrees but adequate documentation is lacking (see 257400).

Ocular albinism (OA1) (300500) can also result from mutations in GPR143.  However, there was no evidence of ocular or systemic hypopigmentation in the Chinese families.

Pedigree: 
X-linked recessive, carrier mother
X-linked recessive, father affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Aprataxin gene mutations in Tunisian families

Amouri R, Moreira MC, Zouari M, El Euch G, Barhoumi C, Kefi M, Belal S, Koenig M, Hentati F. Aprataxin gene mutations in Tunisian families. Neurology. 2004 Sep 14;63(5):928-9.

PubMed ID: 
15365154

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type VII

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus and iris transillumination are present in all family members studied.  VEP studies show asymmetric decussation of axons in the chiasm.  The peripheral retina may have striking hypopigmentation. OCT reveals hypoplasia of the foveal region.   Photophobia is not a significant problem. Visual acuity is mildly to moderately reduced.

Systemic Features: 

Homozygous individuals are lighter in complexion than other family members. Hair color ranges from pale blond to dark brown.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the C10orf11 gene (10q22.2-q22.3) are responsible for the phenotype of this autosomal recessive condition.  The gene is active in melanocyte differentiation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the hypopigmentation has been reported.  Visual function might be improved with low vision aids.

References
Article Title: 

Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism

Montoliu L, Gronskov K, Wei AH, Martinez-Garcia M, Fernandez A, Arveiler B, Morice-Picard F, Riazuddin S, Suzuki T, Ahmed ZM, Rosenberg T, Li W. Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Jan;27(1):11-18. Review.

PubMed ID: 
24066960

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type VI

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus is usually present from birth and visual acuity is in the range of 20/100.  There is marked hypopigmentation in the retina and the iris often transilluminates.  OCT usually shows foveal flattening consistent with hypoplasia.  Most patients experience severe photophobia and many have strabismus.

Systemic Features: 

There is usually complete loss or a severe reduction of melanin in skin, hair, and eyes.  Hair color is blond but may become tinged with brown in older individuals.  The skin may have pigmented nevi and has a tendency to tan in some patients.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in SLC24A5 (15q21.1).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is available.  Visual function can be improved with low vision aids.

References
Article Title: 

SLC24A5 Mutations are Associated with Non-Syndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism

Morice-Picard F, Lasseaux E, Fran?ssois S, Simon D, Rooryck C, Bieth E, Colin E, Bonneau D, Journel H, Walraedt S, Leroy BP, Meire F, Lacombe D, Arveiler B. SLC24A5 Mutations are Associated with Non-Syndromic Oculocutaneous Albinism. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23985994.

PubMed ID: 
23985994

Foveal Hypoplasia and Anterior Chamber Dysgenesis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a congenital disorder with poor vision (20/120-20/400) and nystagmus from birth according to family history.  Three of five patients in one family had a posterior embryotoxon and two had Axenfeld anomaly.  No glaucoma was present although no individuals were older than 15 years of age at the time of examination.  The foveal reflex was absent and there was a poorly defined foveal avascular zone with no distinction of the foveomacular area.   Reduced ERG amplitudes and similar VEP responses were found in 4 affected individuals but these recordings were normal in the parents.  Chiasmal misrouting has been reported in two affected members of one family.  The combination of foveal hypoplasia and decussation defects is characteristic of disorders of pigmentation (albinism) but no iris defects or other evidence of pigmentary anomalies have been found in this condition of foveal hypoplasia.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities were described.

Genetics

Consanguinity has been reported.  A region containing 33 genes at 16q23.2-24.2 co-segregates with the disorder but no mutation has been identified.  Mutations in FOXC2 and PAX6 (that code for transcription factors) have been specifically ruled out in selected families.  However, the phenotype is consistent with dysfunction of some other as yet unidentified transcription control factor or promotor region.    

An autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat similar features known as anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis (107250) has been described but its unique status remains to be established.  Foveal hypoplasia has not been reported but an associated mutation in FOXE3 could be responsible. 

Isolated foveal hypoplasia without anterior chamber malformations (136520) has been reported among families of Jewish Indian ancestry in which homozygous mutations SLC38A8 cosegregated.

With the widespread utilization of OCT measurements, it has become apparent that underdevelopment of the fovea can be a feature of numerous ocular disorders (more than 20 in this database).  In most conditions, the foveal dysplasia is part of a disease complex as in this condition. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

None known.

References
Article Title: 

A new recessively inherited disorder composed of foveal hypoplasia, optic nerve decussation defects and anterior segment dysgenesis maps to chromosome 16q23.3-24.1

Al-Araimi M, Pal B, Poulter JA, van Genderen MM, Carr I, Cudrnak T, Brown L, Sheridan E, Mohamed MD, Bradbury J, Ali M, Inglehearn CF, Toomes C. A new recessively inherited disorder composed of foveal hypoplasia, optic nerve decussation defects and anterior segment dysgenesis maps to chromosome 16q23.3-24.1. Mol Vis. 2013 Nov 1;19:2165-72. PubMed PMID: 24194637;

PubMed ID: 
24194637

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type IV

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular manifestations in type IV oculocutaneous albinism are similar to those of other types.  Nystagmus, strabismus, misrouting of neuronal axons, and foveal hypoplasia are prominent features although there is some clinical heterogeneity among patients.  Nystagmus may not be present at birth but is almost always evident by 3-4 months of age.  The iris may be pale blue or tan and does not generally darken with age.  Poor stereopsis is common.  Vision is stable after childhood and usually in the range of 20/100-20/400. 

Systemic Features: 

Hair color is generally intermediate between white and brown but many patients have only white hair and in others the hair is brown.  Little darkening occurs as patients become older.  The skin is often white or creamy yellow. 

Genetics

This type of oculocutaneous albinism is one of the more common types found among Japanese and maybe Chinese individuals although it has also been reported in German and Turkish individuals.  This is a rare autosomal recessive form of albinism caused by mutations in the MATP (SLC45A2) gene located at 5p13.3. 

A single Japanese family with 16 affected members has been reported in which the transmission pattern was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Heterozygous mutations in the SLC45A2 gene segregated appropriately.

Other types include OCA1 (203100, 606952 ), OCA2 (203200 ), OAC3 (203290), OAC5 (615179), and OCA6 (113750)..

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the hypopigmentation.  Low vision aids and tinted lenses may help some patients.  Exposure to the sun should be limited. 

References
Article Title: 

Oculocutaneous albinism

Gronskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K. Oculocutaneous albinism. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Nov 2;2:43. Review.

PubMed ID: 
17980020

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type II

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The iris and retina lack normal pigmentation and translucency of the iris can be demonstrated.  Anomalous decussation of neuronal axons in the chiasm and foveal hypoplasia result in decreased visual acuity.  Vision loss into the range of 20/100-20/200 does not progress after early childhood but is sometimes as good as 20/30.   Nystagmus is often present from about 3-4 months of age although it is less severe than in type I oculocutaneous albinism (203100, 606952).  The iris may darken to some extent with age.  Strabismus has been reported.  Significant refractive errors are often present and stereopsis is reduced.  The VEP responses are altered and can be used to document abnormal chiasmal decussation. 

Systemic Features: 

Melanin pigment is reduced in the skin and hair as well as the eyes.  Individuals at birth may be misdiagnosed as OCA type I but it is common for pigmentation to increase in older individuals resulting in yellow or reddish-blond hair and the appearance of freckles and nevi.  The skin may be creamy-white but this is often not as striking as in OCAI.  It is possible for tanning to take place in some patients.  This condition in Africans or African Americans is sometimes called brown oculocutaneous albinism (BOCA).  There is an increased risk of skin cancer of all types. 

Genetics

Type II is the most common type of oculocutaneous albinism and is especially prevalent among individuals of African heritage and in several Native American populations.  It is an autosomal recessive condition caused by homozygous 2.7 kb deletions in the OCA2 gene (15q24.3-q12).  Heterozygotes have normal pigmentation. 

Oculocutaneous albinism type I (203100, 606952) is a separate disorder with many similar features caused by mutations in the TYR gene.  Other types of autosomal recessive albinism are OCA3 (203290 ), and OCA4 (606574). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the hypopigmentation.  Low vision aids can be helpful. Significant refractive errors should, of course, be corrected and dark lenses may be helpful during outdoor activities. The skin should be protected from excessive sun exposure. 

References
Article Title: 

Vision in albinism

Summers CG. Vision in albinism. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1996;94:1095-155.

PubMed ID: 
8981720

Oculocutaneous albinism

Gronskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K. Oculocutaneous albinism. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Nov 2;2:43. Review.

PubMed ID: 
17980020

Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Oculocutaneous hypopigmentation is common to all types of HPS.  The ocular manifestations are similar to that of other types of albinism.  Iris transillumination defects, nystagmus, and strabismus are common features.   Visual acuity is usually stable in the range of 20/40-20/300 and often accompanied by photophobia.  Foveal hypoplasia and fundus hypopigmentation are present similar to that found in other hypopigmentation disorders.  The same is true of excessive decussation of retinal neuron axons at the chiasm.  Many patients have significant refractive errors. 

Systemic Features: 

In addition to decreased hair, ocular, and skin pigmentation, HPS patients suffer from bleeding diathesis, platelet deficiencies, and accumulation of ceroid material in lysosomes.  Pigment can be found in large amounts in reticuloendothelial cells and in the walls of small blood vessels.  Some of the same features are found in Chediak-Higashi  syndrome (214500) which, however, has additional qualitative changes in leukocytes.   HPS2 differs from other forms of HPS in having immunodeficiency and congenital neutropenia.  Some patients, especially those with HPS1 and HPS4 mutations, have restrictive lung disease secondary to pulmonary fibrosis often causing symptoms in the third and fourth decades of life.  Others have granulomatous colitis, kidney failure, and cardiomyopathy.  Solar skin damage is a risk, including actinic keratosis, nevi, lentigines and basal cell carcinoma.

Bleeding time is prolonged secondary to an impairment of the normal aggregation response of platelets.  Easy bruising, epistaxis, prolonged bleeding during menstruation, after tooth extraction, and after minor surgical procedures are often reported.  Platelets lack the normal number of 'dense bodies'.  Coagulation factor activity and platelet counts are normal.

The amount of hair and skin pigmentation is highly variable.  Some patients are so lightly pigmented that they are misdiagnosed as having tyrosinase-negative albinism while others have yellow to brown hair with irides blue to hazel.  Some darkening of hair is common. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous condition resulting from mutations in at least 12 loci: HPS1 (203300) at 10q23.1-q23.2, AP3B1 causing HPS2 (608233) at 5q14.1, and AP3D1 (617050) whereas in types HPS3 (606118) at 3q24, HPS4 (606682) at 22q11.2-q12.2, HPS5 (607521) at 11p15-p13, HPS6 (607522) at 10q24.32 the mutations themselves have not been characterized.  HPS7 is caused by mutations in the DTNBP1 gene (607145) located at locus 6p22.3 and HPS8 by mutations in the BLOC1S3 gene (609762) at 19q13.  The nature of the mutations is variable and often unique to the population in which they are found. 

Chediak-Higashi  syndrome (214500) is a somewhat similar disorder but with leukocyte abnormalities and results from a different gene mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

It has been suggested that any patients with pigmentation disorders should be asked about bleeding problems to rule out HPS.  A hematologic consultation should be obtained if necessary, especially before elective surgery, to avoid bleeding complications through the use of appropriate preoperative measures.   Low vision aids can be helpful.  The skin should be protected from sunburn.  Lifelong surveillance is required for ocular and systemic problems.  The use of aspirin and indomethacin should be avoided. 

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

Ammann S, Schulz A, Krageloh-Mann I, Dieckmann NM, Niethammer K, Fuchs S, Eckl KM, Plank R, Werner R, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Nurnberg P, Bank J, Strauss A, von Bernuth H, Zur Stadt U, Grieve S, Griffiths GM, Lehmberg K, Hennies HC, Ehl S. Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Blood. 2016 Feb 25;127(8):997-1006.

PubMed ID: 
26744459

Foveal Hypoplasia 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a poorly defined syndrome with features overlapping aniridia, hereditary keratitis, ocular albinism, and iris anomalies as in Peters anomaly.  However, presenile cataracts seem to be unique to this disorder.  The foveal hypoplasia may occur without other anomalies although the fundus is usually lightly pigmented.  As expected, acuity is subnormal from birth, in the range of 20/50, and dyschromatopsia may be present.  Some patients have nystagmus.  Weak iris transillumination has been reported and a small limbal pannus may be present. Lens opacities may become visually significant in the third to fourth decade of life.  OCT has shown abnormal foveal thickness with multiple inner retinal layers somewhat similar to the situation in oculocutaneous albinism (203100) and it has been suggested that 'foveal dysplasia' is a better description than 'foveal hypoplasia'. 

Systemic Features: 

No systemic disease is present. 

Genetics

This disorder is associated with mutations in the PAX6 gene (11p13) and inherited as an autosomal dominant.

The protein product of the PAX6 gene is a transcription factor that attaches to DNA and regulates the expression of other genes.  PAX6 plays a major role primarily in development of the eye and central nervous system but evidence suggests it is also active postnatally.  Hundreds of mutations have been found in disorders such as hereditary keratitis, aniridia, Peters anomaly, hypoplasia and colobomas of the optic nerve.  This database contains 8 conditions in which mutations in PAX6 seem to be responsible, including syndromal conditions such as Stromme and Gillespie syndromes in which there may be cognitive disabilities. 

True isolated foveal hypoplasia without lens or corneal disease does exist as well but this condition (FVH2) is not well defined.  Homozygous mutations in SLC38A8 have been found to cosegregate with this form of foveal hypoplasia among families of Jewish Indian ancestry.  Hypopigmentation is not a feature of isolated foveal hypoplasia secondary to such mutations but misrouting of optic nerve axons may be present.  Nystagmus and reduced vision but no anterior segment abnormalities were present.

With the widespread utilization of OCT measurements, we have learned that underdevelopment of the fovea can be a feature of numerous ocular disorders (more than 20 in this database).  In most conditions, the foveal dysplasia is part of a disease complex as in foveal hypoplasia with anterior segment dysgenesis (609218).

 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cataract surgery is indicated when lens opacities become visually significant. 

References
Article Title: 

Recessive Mutations in SLC38A8 Cause Foveal Hypoplasia and Optic Nerve Misrouting without Albinism

Poulter JA, Al-Araimi M, Conte I, van Genderen MM, Sheridan E, Carr IM, Parry DA, Shires M, Carrella S, Bradbury J, Khan K, Lakeman P, Sergouniotis PI, Webster AR, Moore AT, Pal B, Mohamed MD, Venkataramana A, Ramprasad V, Shetty R, Saktivel M, Kumaramanickavel G, Tan A, Mackey DA, Hewitt AW, Banfi S, Ali M, Inglehearn CF, Toomes C. Recessive Mutations in SLC38A8 Cause Foveal Hypoplasia and Optic Nerve Misrouting without Albinism. Am J Hum Genet. 2013 Dec 5;93(6):1143-50.

PubMed ID: 
24290379

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - foveal hypoplasia