facial dysmorphology

Neu-Laxova Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The globes are prominent, an appearance that is exaggerated sometimes by absence of the eyelids or ectropion.  The lashes may be absent in other patients.  Cloudy corneas and cataracts have been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a lethal dysplasia-malformation syndrome in which some infants are stillborn while others do not live beyond a few days.  The placenta is often small and the umbilical cord is short.  Decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios are often noted.  Microcephaly can be striking at birth but there is overall intrauterine growth retardation.  The skin is ichthyotic and dysplastic containing excess fatty tissue beneath the epidermis.  Digits are often small and may be fused (syndactyly).  There is generalized edema with ‘puffiness’ of the hands and feet.  The lungs are frequently underdeveloped and cardiac defects such as septal openings, patent ductus arteriosus and transposition of great vessels are common.  Males often have cryptorchidism while females have a bifid uterus and renal dysgenesis has been reported.

The face is dysmorphic with prominent globes (in spite of microphthalmia), the ears are large and malformed, the forehead is sloping, the nose is flattened and the jaw is small.  Some infants have a cleft lip and palate while the mouth is round and gaping.  The neck is usually short.

Severe brain malformations such as lissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and dysgenesis/agenesis of the corpus callosum are frequently present.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to mutations in the PHGDH gene (1p12).

This condition has some clinical overlap with Neu-Laxova syndrome 2 (616038) but the latter is less severe and is caused by a different mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway

Acuna-Hidalgo R, Schanze D, Kariminejad A, Nordgren A, Kariminejad MH, Conner P, Grigelioniene G, Nilsson D, Nordenskjold M, Wedell A, Freyer C, Wredenberg A, Wieczorek D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Kayserili H, Elcioglu N, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Goodarzi P, Setayesh H, van de Vorst M, Steehouwer M, Pfundt R, Krabichler B, Curry C, MacKenzie MG, Boycott KM, Gilissen C, Janecke AR, Hoischen A, Zenker M. Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Sep 4;95(3):285-93.

PubMed ID: 
25152457

Retinitis Pigmentosa, RDH11 Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Night vision problems and cataracts may be noted late in the first decade of life.  The fundus has changes typical of retinitis pigmentosa such as a salt-and-pepper retinopathy and narrowing of the arterioles with relative sparing of the fovea.  Confluent bone-spicule pigmentation is present in the periphery.  The optic nerve may have a pinkish waxy appearance.  Best-corrected visual acuity early is in the 20/25-20/30 range early in life with progressive deterioration.  Full field ERGs and visual fields are consistent with retinitis pigmentosa with the scotopic system more severely affected than the photopic.

Systemic Features: 

Developmental delays and cognitive deficits are apparent in early childhood.  Diastema and malocclusion may be present.  Short stature (5th percentile) is characteristic along with facial dysmorphology consisting of hypoplasia of the alae nasae, malar hypoplasia and slight up slanting of the palpebral fissures.

Genetics

A single family with three affected sibs (2 boys and one girl) has been reported.  The parents were phenotypically normal consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.  Two variants in the RDH11 (14q24.1) gene were identified in the (compound heterozygous) siblings as responsible for a truncated, inactive enzyme.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment information is available.  Patients may benefit from special education, low vision aids, and physical therapy.Cataract surgery may be indicated.

References
Article Title: 

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 3B (Infantile Refsum Disease)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This peroxisomal disorder presents in the first year of life with both systemic and ocular features.  Night blindness is the major ocular feature and at least some have optic atrophy similar to the adult form.  Nystagmus may be present.  Reduction or absence of rod responses on ERG can be used in young children to document the retinopathy. Blindness and deafness commonly occur in childhood.

Systemic Features: 

This disorder is classified as a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) associated with the breakdown of phytanic acid.  Ataxia and features of motor neuron disease are evident early.  Hepatomegaly and jaundice may also be an early diagnostic feature as bile acid metabolism is defective.  Infant hypotonia is often seen.  Nonspecific facial dysmorphism has been reported as a feature. The teeth are abnormally large and often have yellowish discoloration.  Postural unsteadiness is evident when patients begin walking.  Diagnosis can be suspected from elevated serum phytanic and pipecolic acid (in 20% of patients) or by demonstration of decreased phytanic acid oxidation in cultured fibroblasts.  Other biochemical abnormalities such as hypocholesterolemia and elevated very long chain fatty acids and trihydroxycholestanoic acid are usually present.  Anosmia and mental retardation are nearly universal features.  Early mortality in infancy or childhood is common although some survive into the 2nd and 3rd decades.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) resulting from mutations in a number of PEX genes (PEX1, PEX2, PEX3, PEX12, PEX26).  It shares many features with other PBDs including those formerly called Zellweger syndrome (214100), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (215100), and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (601539).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Mowat-Wilson Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most reports of Mowat-Wilson disorders provide only incomplete ocular findings and the full phenotype remains to be described.  Most of the reported findings are part of the facial phenotype, such as downward slanting palpebral fissures, and ‘wedge-shaped’ eyebrows with the medial portion visibly wider than the temporal region.  Hypertelorism, strabismus and telecanthus have also been noted.  However, optic nerve atrophyor aplasia, RPE atrophy, microphthalmia, ptosis, and cataracts are sometimes present while strabismus is more common.  Iris and other uveal colobomas may be present and at least one patient has been reported with retinal aplasia.  There may be considerable asymmetry in the features among the two eyes.

Systemic Features: 

This is a highly complex dysmorphic developmental disorder with unusual progression of facial features.  Birth weight and length are usually normal but later there is general somatic and mental growth delay with microcephaly (pre- and post natal), short stature, intellectual disability, and epilepsy (70%).  Hypotonia has been noted at birth.  A significant proportion (~50%) of patients have Hirschsprung disease with megacolon.  Congenital heart defects are common, many involving septal openings.  Hypospadias is often present with or without other genitourinary anomalies.  Teeth are often crowded and crooked.  The earlobes may be flattened and may have a central depression.

The facial features are present in early childhood but as they mature the upper half of the nasal profile becomes convex, while the nasal tip becomes longer and overhangs the philtrum.  The eyes appear more deeply set.  The chin lengthens and prognathism becomes apparent.  IQ levels cannot be determined but many individuals exhibit behavioral or emotional disturbances.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in ZEB2 (2q22.3) are responsible for most cases (81%) of this disorder.  A large number of molecular mutations, many of the nonsense type, have been reported. About 2-4% of patients have cytogenetic alterations involving the 2q22 region.

Another disorder with microcephaly, intellectual disability and Hirschsprung disease is Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (609460) with mutations in the KIAA1279 gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment may be directed at specific defects but there is no treatment for the general disorder. Individuals can live to adulthood. Treatment is largely symptomatic.  Physical and speech treatment can be helpful if initiated early.

References
Article Title: 

Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Bourchany A, Giurgea I, Thevenon J, Goldenberg A, Morin G, Bremond-Gignac D, Paillot C, Lafontaine PO, Thouvenin D, Massy J, Duncombe A, Thauvin-Robinet C, Masurel-Paulet A, Chehadeh SE, Huet F, Bron A, Creuzot-Garcher C, Lyonnet S, Faivre L. Clinical spectrum of eye malformations in four patients with Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2015 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print]

PubMed ID: 
25899569

The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Evans E, Einfeld S, Mowat D, Taffe J, Tonge B, Wilson M. The behavioral phenotype of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2012 Feb;158A(2):358-66. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.34405.

PubMed ID: 
22246645

Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature

Garavelli L, Zollino M, Mainardi PC, Gurrieri F, Rivieri F, Soli F, Verri R, Albertini E, Favaron E, Zignani M, Orteschi D, Bianchi P, Faravelli F, Forzano F, Seri M, Wischmeijer A, Turchetti D, Pompilii E, Gnoli M, Cocchi G, Mazzanti L, Bergamaschi R, De Brasi D, Sperandeo MP, Mari F, Uliana V, Mostardini R, Cecconi M, Grasso M, Sassi S, Sebastio G, Renieri A, Silengo M, Bernasconi S, Wakamatsu N, Neri G. Mowat-Wilson syndrome: facial phenotype changing with age: study of 19 Italian patients and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):417-26. Review.

PubMed ID: 
19215041

Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome

Zweier C, Thiel CT, Dufke A, Crow YJ, Meinecke P, Suri M, Ala-Mello S, Beemer F, Bernasconi S, Bianchi P, Bier A, Devriendt K, Dimitrov B, Firth H, Gallagher RC, Garavelli L, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Hudgins L, K?SS?SSri?SSinen H, Karstens S, Krantz I, Mannhardt A, Medne L, M?ocke J, Kibaek M, Krogh LN, Peippo M, Rittinger O, Schulz S, Schelley SL, Temple IK, Dennis NR, Van der Knaap MS, Wheeler P, Yerushalmi B, Zenker M, Seidel H, Lachmeijer A, Prescott T, Kraus C, Lowry RB, Rauch A. Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. Eur J Med Genet. 2005 Apr-Jun;48(2):97-111

PubMed ID: 
16053902

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular signs resemble those of other peroxisomal disorders with cataracts and retinopathy.  The lethal consequences of ZWS have hampered delineation of the full spectrum of ocular manifestations but many infants have these features plus optic atrophy and horizontal nystagmus.  Most infants do not follow light.  Pupillary responses may be normal in early stages but disappear later. Hypertelorism has been described but metrics are often normal.

Systemic Features: 

Many infants have hepatomegaly at birth and may develop splenomegaly as well.  Jaundice often occurs with intrahepatic biliary dysgenesis.   Severe hypotonia is present at birth but improves in those patients who survive for several years.  Psychomotor retardation can be profound and seizures may occur but sensory examinations are normal.  Most infants have a peculiar craniofacial dysmorphology with frontal bossing, large fontanels, and wide set eyes.  Pipecolic acid levels are low in serum and absent in the CSF.  Most infants do not survive beyond 6 months of age.

 

Genetics

This is a peroxisome biogenesis disorder with a complex biochemical profile resulting from a large number of mutations in at least 13 PEX genes.  It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.

What was formerly called Zellweger Syndrome is now more properly called Zellweger Spectrum Disorder, or sometimes a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder in the Zellweger spectrum of disorders.  The spectrum also includes neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (601539) and Infantile Refsum disease (601539). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Aicardi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A variety of chorioretinal lesions have been described in Aicardi syndrome including lacunae ('holes') in 88%, and choroid plexus papillomas which are considered specific and characteristic.  These tend to be more common in the posterior pole. They are stable and do not enlarge.  They can usually be distinguished from post-infection scars by the absence of pigmentation.  A bull's eye maculopathy may be present.  Optic nerve colobomas (in 42%) and hypoplasia have been reported.   At least 61% of eyes have some optic nerve abnormalities.  Presumed microphthalmia has been noted in 25% of patients. A minority of patients have a persistent pupillary membrane.  Sparse lateral eyebrows have also been reported with .

There is evidence that the primary molecular defect involves Bruch's membrane resulting in damage to the RPE.

Congenital glaucoma has been diagnosed in several patients.

Systemic Features: 

Patients with Aicardi syndrome are considered to have a characteristic facial phenotype with a prominent premaxilla, upturned nasal tip, and decreased angle of the nasal bridge.  Several patients have been reported with vertebral anomalies as well as cleft lip and palate.  The most severe symptoms including infantile spasms, developmental delay, and seizures are the result of a generalized neuronal migration disorder evident on MRI as polymicrogyria, periventricular heterotopia, and various malformations of the corpus callosum.  The latter structure is absent in 72% of patients.  Intracranial cysts and cerebellar dysplasia have been reported in 95% of patients.  MRI of the brain often shows asymmetry and unilateral microphthalmia is often present on the side of the more severe brain lesions.  Most individuals have some intellectual disabilities and do not live beyond childhood.

Genetics

Since virtually all reported cases have been female this is considered to be a dominant X-linked disorder with lethality in hemizygous males.  The presumed locus is at Xp22 although no specific gene mutation has been identified. Interestingly, several affected XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) males have been reported which is consistent with the most likely mode of inheritance.  It has been proposed that the majority of cases results from new mutations since familial cases are exceedingly rare.

Aicard-Goutieres syndromes are separate disorders.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, father affected
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the syndrome.  However, specific features such as congenital glaucoma may require treatment.

References
Article Title: 

Laterality of brain and ocular lesions in aicardi syndrome

Cabrera MT, Winn BJ, Porco T, Strominger Z, Barkovich AJ, Hoyt CS, Wakahiro M, Sherr EH. Laterality of brain and ocular lesions in aicardi syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2011 Sep;45(3):149-54. PubMed PMID: 21824560.

PubMed ID: 
21824560

Neuroimaging aspects of Aicardi syndrome

Hopkins B, Sutton VR, Lewis RA, Van den Veyver I, Clark G. Neuroimaging aspects of Aicardi syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Nov 15;146A(22):2871-8.

PubMed ID: 
18925666
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