syndactyly

Jackson-Weiss Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The facial malformation such as the flattened midface with maxillary hypoplasia leads to shallow orbits with the result that the eyes appear proptotic.  Some but not all individuals have strabismus, usually exotropia.  Optic atrophy has not been reported. 

Systemic Features: 

Infants usually present at birth with skull deformities resembling some variant of acrocephalosyndactyly.  Some or all of the skull sutures may be fused.  In some individuals craniectomy is necessary while others have normal brain development.  Few patients have evidence of abnormal neurological development and psychometric testing reveals IQ's in the normal range.  The midface is flattened with sometimes severe maxillary hypoplasia.  No hand deformities are present. 

There may be cutaneous syndactyly of the second and third toes.  Variable tarsal fusion is often present. The great toe may be abnormally broad and deviated medially.  The first metatarsals and proximal phalanges of the great toes are generally broad.

The phenotype is highly variable and even among individuals in genetically more homogeneous populations such as the Old Order Amish the range of facial, skull, and digital anomalies include features found among all of the craniosynostosis syndromes except for Apert syndrome.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the FGFR2 gene (10q26.13) are likely responsible for this autosomal dominant condition. 

Other forms of craniosynostosis in which mutations in FGFR2 have been found are: Beare-Stevenson Syndrome (123790), Crouzon Syndrome (123500), Pfeiffer Syndrome (101600), Apert Syndrome (101200), and Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment beyond surgical correction of selected malformations. The risk of exposure keratitis requires constant vigilance and appropriate corneal lubrication.

References
Article Title: 

Neu-Laxova Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The globes are prominent, an appearance that is exaggerated sometimes by absence of the eyelids or ectropion.  The lashes may be absent in other patients.  Cloudy corneas and cataracts have been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a lethal dysplasia-malformation syndrome in which some infants are stillborn while others do not live beyond a few days.  The placenta is often small and the umbilical cord is short.  Decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios are often noted.  Microcephaly can be striking at birth but there is overall intrauterine growth retardation.  The skin is ichthyotic and dysplastic containing excess fatty tissue beneath the epidermis.  Digits are often small and may be fused (syndactyly).  There is generalized edema with ‘puffiness’ of the hands and feet.  The lungs are frequently underdeveloped and cardiac defects such as septal openings, patent ductus arteriosus and transposition of great vessels are common.  Males often have cryptorchidism while females have a bifid uterus and renal dysgenesis has been reported.

The face is dysmorphic with prominent globes (in spite of microphthalmia), the ears are large and malformed, the forehead is sloping, the nose is flattened and the jaw is small.  Some infants have a cleft lip and palate while the mouth is round and gaping.  The neck is usually short.

Severe brain malformations such as lissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and dysgenesis/agenesis of the corpus callosum are frequently present.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to mutations in the PHGDH gene (1p12).

This condition has some clinical overlap with Neu-Laxova syndrome 2 (616038) but the latter is less severe and is caused by a different mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway

Acuna-Hidalgo R, Schanze D, Kariminejad A, Nordgren A, Kariminejad MH, Conner P, Grigelioniene G, Nilsson D, Nordenskjold M, Wedell A, Freyer C, Wredenberg A, Wieczorek D, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Kayserili H, Elcioglu N, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Goodarzi P, Setayesh H, van de Vorst M, Steehouwer M, Pfundt R, Krabichler B, Curry C, MacKenzie MG, Boycott KM, Gilissen C, Janecke AR, Hoischen A, Zenker M. Neu-laxova syndrome is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder caused by defects in enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Sep 4;95(3):285-93.

PubMed ID: 
25152457

Roberts Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes often appear prominent as the result of shallow orbits.  Hypertelorism and microphthalmia can be present.  The sclerae can have a bluish hue.   Cataracts and central corneal clouding plus scleralization and vascularization of the peripheral corneas are sometimes seen.  Lid colobomas and down-slanting palpebral fissures may be present.

Systemic Features: 

Failure of both membranous and long bones to grow properly lead to a variety of abnormalities such as craniosynostosis, hypomelia, syndactyly, oligodactyly, malar hypoplasia, short neck, micrognathia, and cleft lip and palate.  The long bones of the limbs may be underdeveloped or even absent.  Contractures of elbow, knee, and ankle joints are common as are digital anomalies.  Low birth weight and slow postnatal growth rates are usually result in short stature.  The hair is often sparse and light-colored. 

Mental development is impaired and some children are diagnosed to have mental retardation.  Cardiac defects are common.  Facial hemangiomas are often present as are septal defects and sometimes a patent ductus arteriosus.  External genitalia in both sexes appear enlarged.  The kidneys may be polycystic or horseshoe-shaped.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the ESCO2 gene (8p21.1).  Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for what some have called the SC phocomelia syndrome (269000) which has a similar but less severe phenotype.  Some consider the two disorders to be variants of the same condition and they are considered to be the same entity in this database.  The gene product is required for structural maintenance of centromeric cohesion during the cell cycle.  Microscopic anomalies of the centromeric region (puffing of the heterochromatic regions) are sometimes seen during cell division.

The Baller-Gerold syndrome (218600) has some phenotypic overlap with Roberts syndrome but is caused by mutations in a different gene (RECQL4).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Severely affected infants may be stillborn or die in infancy.  Other individuals live to adulthood.  There is no treatment for this condition beyond specific correction of individual anomalies.

References
Article Title: 

Orofaciodigital Syndrome, Type VI

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Hypertelorism and epicanthal folds have been described.  Some patients have nystagmus and strabismus. Ocular apraxia and difficulties in smooth visual pursuit may be present.   

Systemic Features: 

Polydactyly of the hands is a common feature.  The central metacarpal is often Y-shaped leading to ‘central polydactyly’.  The large toes may be bifid.  Cognitive deficits are common and some patients have been considered mentally retarded.  The ears are low-set and rotated posteriorly.  Some patients have a conductive hearing loss.  Oral anomalies may include a lobed tongue, lingual and sublingual hemartomas, micrognathia, clefting, and multiple buccoalveolar frenula.  Congenital heart anomalies, micropenis, and cryptorchidism have been reported.  Tachypnea and tachycardia have been noted.  Some patients have some degree of skeletal dysplasia and many individuals are short in stature.

The presence of cerebellar abnormalities such as hypoplasia (including absence) of the vermis may help to distinguish type VI from other forms of OFDS.  Hypothalamic dysfunction may be responsible for poor temperature regulation (hyperthermia). The ‘molar tooth sign’ seen on brain MRIs in Joubert syndrome (213300) is also present in OFDS VI. 

Genetics

This is a rare condition with limited family information.  Parents in one family were consanguineous, and multiple affected sibs in other families suggest this may be an autosomal recessive condition.  Homozygous mutations in TMEM216 have been found. Other patients have mutations in C5orf42.

Many of the clinical features in OFDS VI are also found among individuals with Joubert (213300) and Meckel (249000) syndromes that also sometimes have mutations in the TMEM216 and C5orf42 genes.  Some consider all of these conditions to be members of a group of overlapping disorders called ciliopathies or ciliary dyskinesias.   

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No specific treatment is available for this syndrome but individual signs and symptoms may need treatment.

References
Article Title: 

C5orf42 is the major gene responsible for OFD syndrome type VI

Lopez E, Thauvin-Robinet C, Reversade B, Khartoufi NE, Devisme L, Holder M, Ansart-Franquet H, Avila M, Lacombe D, Kleinfinger P, Kaori I, Takanashi JI, Le Merrer M, Martinovic J, No?'l C, Shboul M, Ho L, G?oven Y, Razavi F, Burglen L, Gigot N, Darmency-Stamboul V, Thevenon J, Aral B, Kayserili H, Huet F, Lyonnet S, Le Caignec C, Franco B, Rivi?(r)re JB, Faivre L, Atti?(c)-Bitach T. C5orf42 is the major gene responsible for OFD syndrome type VI. Hum Genet. 2013 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24178751

Mutations in TMEM216 perturb ciliogenesis and cause Joubert, Meckel and related syndromes

Valente EM, Logan CV, Mougou-Zerelli S, Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Brancati F, Iannicelli M, Travaglini L, Romani S, Illi B, Adams M, Szymanska K, Mazzotta A, Lee JE, Tolentino JC, Swistun D, Salpietro CD, Fede C, Gabriel S, Russ C, Cibulskis K, Sougnez C, Hildebrandt F, Otto EA, Held S, Diplas BH, Davis EE, Mikula M, Strom CM, Ben-Zeev B, Lev D, Sagie TL, Michelson M, Yaron Y, Krause A, Boltshauser E, Elkhartoufi N, Roume J, Shalev S, Munnich A, Saunier S, Inglehearn C, Saad A, Alkindy A, Thomas S, Vekemans M, Dallapiccola B, Katsanis N, Johnson CA, Atti?(c)-Bitach T, Gleeson JG. Mutations in TMEM216 perturb ciliogenesis and cause Joubert, Meckel and related syndromes. Nat Genet. 2010 Jul;42(7):619-25.

PubMed ID: 
20512146

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 6

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ultrasound evaluation reveals globe size to vary widely from extremely small (6 mm) to normal axial length. Clinical anophthalmia is often diagnosed.  Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may exist in the same individual. True anophthalmia has been confirmed in some patients in which no ocular tissue was detectable with ultrasound examination.  In such cases the optic nerves and chiasm are often missing as well.  Iris colobomas are common and these may extend posteriorly.  Myopia is sometimes present.

The ERG reveals generalized rod and cone dysfunction in some eyes, but may be normal in others. In many eyes the ERG is nonrecordable. Cataracts are frequently present.

Systemic Features: 

Digital and hand anomalies are common.  The hands are often described as broad and the thumbs may be low-placed.  The nails can appear dysplastic and postaxial polydactyly is often present.  Mild webbing of the fingers has been reported as well.  Microcephaly and the cranium can be misshapen. A high arched palate is often present and clefting has also been noted.  Micrognathia may be present. Some evidence of physical growth retardation is often evident.

Pituitary hypoplasia is not uncommon and may be associated with hypothyroidism and cryptorchidism with hypospadias, and a small or bifid scrotum.

The brain anomalies vary considerably.  Many patients have mild to moderate developmental delays with some learning difficulties. Sensorineural hearing loss is often present. Hypoplasia of the vermis, thinning of the corpus callosum, widening of the lateral ventricles, and occasional generalized cortical atrophy, at least in older individuals, have been described.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a point mutation in BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4) (14q22-q23).  A number of chromosomal deletions involving this gene have also been identified in individuals who have this syndrome but since contiguous genes such as OTX2 and SIX6 may also be involved, the phenotype is more likely to be associated with other anomalies including genital hypoplasia, pituitary hypoplasia, absence of the optic nerves and/or chiasm, developmental delay, digital malformations, and cerebellar dysplasia.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cataracts can be removed in selected individuals with potential visual function.  Socket prostheses should be considered in anophthalmia and extreme microphthalmia.  Low vision devices, Braille, and mobility training should be initiated early when appropriate.  Hearing evaluations should be done as soon as practical.

Learning specialists and special education facilities should be available for selected patients.  Polydactyly, syndactyly, skull, and cleft palate repairs may be indicated.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in BMP4 cause eye, brain, and digit developmental anomalies: overlap between the BMP4 and hedgehog signaling pathways

Bakrania P, Efthymiou M, Klein JC, Salt A, Bunyan DJ, Wyatt A, Ponting CP, Martin A, Williams S, Lindley V, Gilmore J, Restori M, Robson AG, Neveu MM, Holder GE, Collin JR, Robinson DO, Farndon P, Johansen-Berg H, Gerrelli D, Ragge NK. Mutations in BMP4 cause eye, brain, and digit developmental anomalies: overlap between the BMP4 and hedgehog signaling pathways. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Feb;82(2):304-19.

PubMed ID: 
18252212

Feingold Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Short, narrow palpebral fissures have been reported (73%).  The fissures may be up slanting and epicanthal folds have been noted.   

Systemic Features: 

The face can appear asymmetrical and triangular and the head is small in 89% of individuals.  Micrognathia is usually present and the lips appear full.  The nasal bridge is broad and the nostrils are anteverted.  The ears are often low-set and rotated posteriorly.  Syndactyly of the toes is common (97%) and the fingers are often anomalous (particularly 5th finger clinodactyly and brachydactyly) with hypoplastic thumbs.  Shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the fingers is especially common.  True short stature is uncommon but 60% are below the 10th centile.  Rare individuals have a sensorineural hearing loss.

Tracheoesophageal fistulas are often present, together with atresia of the duodenum and sometimes the esophagus as well.  Cardiac, renal, and vertebral malformations are seen in a minority of patients.

Intelligence may be normal but more often is below average and learning difficulties are often present.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder secondary to mutations in the MYCN gene (2p24.3).

MYCN is up regulated in some patients with retinoblastoma (180200).

Feingold syndrome 2 (614326) is caused by hemizygous deletions of the MIR17HG gene but no ocular signs have been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment for the syndrome but surgery can be important for some of the external and internal malformations. Special education and treatment of hearing loss are important.

References
Article Title: 

Genotype-phenotype correlations in MYCN-related Feingold syndrome

Marcelis CL, Hol FA, Graham GE, Rieu PN, Kellermayer R, Meijer RP, Lugtenberg D, Scheffer H, van Bokhoven H, Brunner HG, de Brouwer AP. Genotype-phenotype correlations in MYCN-related Feingold syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2008 Sep;29(9):1125-32.

PubMed ID: 
18470948

Duane-Radial Ray Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most individuals have features of Duane’s anomaly, sometimes unilaterally.  Optic pallor with poor vision has been described in well-studied patients who also had thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer.  The optic disk may appear hypoplastic.  Visual evoked potentials and pattern ERG amplitudes are decreased.

Other less common ocular features are microcornea, microphthalmia, ophthalmoplegia, hypertelorism, cataracts, epicanthal folds, colobomas, and chorioretinal scars.

Systemic Features: 

The systemic features are inconsistent (variable expressivity) with most patients having some variation of hypodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, and malformation of the hands.  The thumb is the most common digit involved and this is often associated with thenar hypoplasia.  Other skeletal features of the radial ray syndrome including absence of the radial and ulnar bones are variably present.  Hearing loss is described as sensorineural in etiology but malformations of the pinnae and external meatus are sometimes present.

Kidney anomalies include horseshoe malformations, abnormal rotation, ectopia, small size, vesicoureteric reflux, and pelvicalyceal dilatation.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder due to heterozygous mutations in the SALL4 gene (20q13.2).

This syndrome is sometimes confused with the Holt-Oram syndrome but the latter is the result of mutations in a different gene and lacks ocular and renal abnormalities.  Duane syndrome 1 and 2 may also occur as isolated conditions.

The considerable clinical heterogeneity has led to alternate titles for this syndrome. For example, what is sometimes called the IVIC syndrome (147750) with similar features is also caused by mutations in this gene.  Duane-radial ray syndrome has also been called Okihiro syndrome. 

 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is symptomatic in most cases although reconstructive surgery may be helpful for severe hand deformities.  Low vision aids may be beneficial.  

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia with Limb Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have either microphthalmia or anophthalmia which may be present unilaterally or bilaterally.  The MRI in several patients has revealed complete absence of the globes, optic nerves, chiasm, and optic tracts.  The eyelashes are often sparse with shortened palpebral fissures and broad lateral eyebrows.

Systemic Features: 

Global developmental delays, failure to thrive, and mild to moderate mental retardation are common.   Syndactyly, polydactyly, and oligodactyly with hypoplasia of the long bones are present to a variable degree.  Synostosis in the digits, ankles, and wrist is often seen.  A split hand (lobster-claw deformity) is variably present.  Other anomalies such as the kidneys (horseshoe kidney), undescended testes, anomalous venous circulation and deformed vertebrae have been reported.  The midface is often flattened.  A high palate, cleft lip, and mild scoliosis may be seen.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from homozygous mutations in the SMOC1 gene (14q24.2) but there is some evidence of genetic heterogeneity as the disorder has been mapped to 10p11.23 in several families.  However, no causative mutations were found in this region.  Consanguinity among parents is common.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment in most cases for the ocular malformations.  Some of the limb anomalies may be surgically correctable.

References
Article Title: 

SMOC1 is essential for ocular and limb development in humans and mice

Okada I, Hamanoue H, Terada K, Tohma T, Megarbane A, Chouery E, Abou-Ghoch J, Jalkh N, Cogulu O, Ozkinay F, Horie K, Takeda J, Furuichi T, Ikegawa S, Nishiyama K, Miyatake S, Nishimura A, Mizuguchi T, Niikawa N, Hirahara F, Kaname T, Yoshiura K, Tsurusaki Y, Doi H, Miyake N, Furukawa T, Matsumoto N, Saitsu H. SMOC1 is essential for ocular and limb development in humans and mice. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Jan 7;88(1):30-41.

PubMed ID: 
21194678

A locus for ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome mapped to 10p11.23

Hamanoue H, Megarbane A, Tohma T, Nishimura A, Mizuguchi T, Saitsu H, Sakai H, Miura S, Toda T, Miyake N, Niikawa N, Yoshiura K, Hirahara F, Matsumoto N. A locus for ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome mapped to 10p11.23. Am J Med Genet A. 2009 Mar;149A(3):336-42.

PubMed ID: 
19208380

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Microphthalmia is often a part of other ocular and systemic anomalies.  The full range of essential features of Lenz microphthalmia remains unknown but is often diagnosed in males when colobomas and microcornea are associated with mental deficits together with urogenital and skeletal anomalies.  Microphthalmos may be unilateral and ocular cysts are common.  The globes may be sufficiently small that anophthalmia is sometimes diagnosed but this is a misnomer as some ocular tissue is always present.   Sixty per cent of eyes have colobomas which are often bilateral and may involve the optic disc, choroid, ciliary body, and iris.  Blindness is common.  

Systemic Features: 

A large number of associated systemic anomalies have been reported with this type of microphthalmia.  Skeletal features include microcephaly, spinal deformities, high arched palate, pectus excavatum, absent or dysplastic clavicles (accounting for the narrow or sagging shoulders), and digital anomalies including syndactyly, duplicated thumbs and clinodactyly.  Physical growth retardation is evident by shortness of stature.   Urogenital malformations are present in 77% of individuals and include hypospadius, cryptorchidism, hydroureter, and renal dysgenesis.  Dental anomalies include oligodontia and irregular lower incisors that may be widely spaced.  Some degree of intellectual disability is present in 63%.  The ears may be abnormally shaped, low-set, rotated posteriorly, and anteverted. 

Genetics

This is a rare X-linked disorder that is apparently due to an unknown mutation at Xq27-Xq28.  No male-to-male transmission has been observed but affected males rarely reproduce as a result of various urogenital anomalies.

A somewhat similar X-linked syndrome of microphthalmia, sometimes called OFCD syndrome (syndromic 2 microphthalmia; 300166) has been reported to be caused by mutations in BCOR (Xp11.4).  This MCOPS2 disorder is often considered to be X-linked dominant with lethality in males.

Another X-linked non-syndromic form of microphthalmia with colobomas has been reported (Microphthalmia with Coloboma, X-Linked; 300345).  In addition there is a similar disorder of simple Microphthalmia with Coloboma that is inherited either in an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern (605738, 610092, 611638, 613703, 251505 ).

Pedigree: 
X-linked recessive, carrier mother
X-linked recessive, father affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment beyond supportive care for specific health issues. 

References
Article Title: 

Ablepharon-Macrostomia Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The clinical features of this syndrome remain to be fully delineated.  Important ocular anomalies include malformations and sometimes absence of the upper and lower eyelids.  The eyelashes and eyebrows may be sparse or even missing.  The lid fissures, if present, may be shortened.  Deformities of the eyelids can lead to corneal exposure and secondary vision loss. 

Systemic Features: 

Other facial malformations include macrostomia which may be secondary to aberrant lip fusion.  Micrognathia has been described.  The external ears are often rudimentary, sometimes described as rosebuds.  The nasal bridge is low and the nostrils anteverted.  The zygomatic arches may be absent.  The nipples are often missing as well.  Scalp hair is sparse or even absent while the skin is dry, coarse, and often has redundant folds (cutis laxa).  Mild skin syndactyly, camptodactyly, finger contractures, and shortening of metacarpals have been noted.  The genitalia are often ambiguous and some patients have had ventral hernias.  Hearing loss can be a feature.  Growth retardation has been seen but developmental delays if present are mild.  Intelligence can be normal. 

Genetics

The majority of sibships suggest autosomal recessive inheritance although autosomal dominant inheritance has been proposed for several. One male child has been reported to have a partial deletion of chromosome 18 but other complex rearrangements were also present.

An amino acid substitution (lysine) in the basic domain of the TWIST2 gene has been found in seven families in which ablepharon-macrostomia followed an autosomal dominant pattern.  Mutations in the same TWIST2 domain but leading to substitutions of glutamine or alanine amino acids is responsible for the Barber-Say phenotype (209885).

Mutations in the TWIST2 gene may also be responsible for Setleis syndrome (227260). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Cosmetic surgery can correct at least some of the malformations. Vigorous effort may be required to maintain corneal surface wetting. 

References
Article Title: 

Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes

Marchegiani S, Davis T, Tessadori F, van Haaften G, Brancati F, Hoischen A, Huang H, Valkanas E, Pusey B, Schanze D, Venselaar H, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Wolfe LA, Tifft CJ, Zerfas PM, Zambruno G, Kariminejad A, Sabbagh-Kermani F, Lee J, Tsokos MG, Lee CC, Ferraz V, da Silva EM, Stevens CA, Roche N, Bartsch O, Farndon P, Bermejo-Sanchez E, Brooks BP, Maduro V, Dallapiccola B, Ramos FJ, Chung HY, Le Caignec C, Martins F, Jacyk WK, Mazzanti L, Brunner HG, Bakkers J, Lin S, Malicdan MC, Boerkoel CF, Gahl WA, de Vries BB, van Haelst MM, Zenker M, Markello TC. Recurrent Mutations in the Basic Domain of TWIST2 Cause Ablepharon Macrostomia and Barber-Say Syndromes. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Jul 2;97(1):99-110.

PubMed ID: 
26119818

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