short ribs

Short-Rib Thoracic Dysplasia 9

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A pigmentary retinopathy resembling retinitis pigmentosa is present in the majority of individuals.  Reduced acuity is likely responsible for the associated nystagmus and occasional strabismus.  Night blindness is a feature although the age of onset is unknown.  Visual acuity is decreased in the first decade but at least one patient at age 40 years still had vision of 20/40-20/50.  The ERG shows decreased scotopic and photopic responses as early as 12 years of age.  The retinopathy has been described as an atypical nonpigmented retinal degeneration in the peripheral retina. However, bone-spicule pigmentary deposits have been noted.  The retinal disease is progressive. 

Systemic Features: 

The LFT140 mutation has widespread effects, impacting the kidney, liver and skeletal systems.  The thorax is shortened, while the ribs are abnormally short and may result in respiratory difficulties, recurrent infections, and an early demise.  The middle phalanges of the hands and feet often have cone-shaped epiphyses, especially notable in childhood and leading to brachydactyly.  The long bones are often shortened as well.  The femoral neck can be short while the femoral epiphyses are often flattened.  Microcephaly has been reported in several individuals.

The liver may be enlarged and become fibrotic.  The kidneys often are cystic and histologically may have sclerosing glomerulonephropathy.  Kidney disease has an onset in the first decade and its progression often defines the survival prognosis.  Renal transplantation can be lifesaving when nephronophthisis develops.  Psychomotor delays have been reported but are uncommon. 

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the LFT140 gene (16p13.3) have been identified.  However, there is some genetic heterogeneity since several patients having the typical phenotype have been reported with only heterozygous mutations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the general disease.  Renal and pulmonary function needs to be monitored with intervention as needed.  Some patients have benefitted from renal transplantation.

References
Article Title: 

Combined NGS approaches identify mutations in the intraflagellar transport gene IFT140 in skeletal ciliopathies with early progressive kidney Disease

Schmidts M, Frank V, Eisenberger T, Al Turki S, Bizet AA, Antony D, Rix S, Decker C, Bachmann N, Bald M, Vinke T, Toenshoff B, Di Donato N, Neuhann T, Hartley JL, Maher ER, Bogdanovic R, Peco-Antic A, Mache C, Hurles ME, Joksic I, Guc-Scekic M, Dobricic J, Brankovic-Magic M, Bolz HJ, Pazour GJ, Beales PL, Scambler PJ, Saunier S, Mitchison HM, Bergmann C. Combined NGS approaches identify mutations in the intraflagellar transport gene IFT140 in skeletal ciliopathies with early progressive kidney Disease. Hum Mutat. 2013 May;34(5):714-24.

PubMed ID: 
23418020

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome is a ciliopathy caused by IFT140 mutations

Perrault I, Saunier S, Hanein S, Filhol E, Bizet AA, Collins F, Salih MA, Gerber S, Delphin N, Bigot K, Orssaud C, Silva E, Baudouin V, Oud MM, Shannon N, Le Merrer M, Roche O, Pietrement C, Goumid J, Baumann C, Bole-Feysot C, Nitschke P, Zahrate M, Beales P, Arts HH, Munnich A, Kaplan J, Antignac C, Cormier-Daire V, Rozet JM. Mainzer-Saldino syndrome is a ciliopathy caused by IFT140 mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 May 4;90(5):864-70.

PubMed ID: 
22503633

Majewski Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

No clinical information is available on the ocular features in this disorder.  The fundi have been described as normal in one patient but postmortem histopathology at 8 weeks revealed optic nerve edema with segmental axonal dropout and loss of myelin.  The nerve fiber layer of the retina was prominent with some proliferation of glial tissue.  Early nuclear sclerosis was also present.

Systemic Features: 

This disorder results from a dysgenesis of the cilia and is one of a group of short rib-polydactyly disorders.  Congenital anomalies are found in multiple organs including heart, lungs, skeleton, intestines, genitalia, pancreas, liver, and kidneys.  The diagnostic characteristic of SRPS type II is extreme shortening of the tibia in addition to short ribs in this type of short-limbed dwarfism.

Midline facial clefting, especially cleft lip, is common.  The epiglottis and lungs are often hypoplastic and the kidneys are polycystic.  Polydactyly and polysyndactyly of both pre- and postaxial types are usually present.  Most neonates with SRPS type II do not live beyond infancy.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition resulting from homozygous mutations in the NEK1 gene (4q33), or, rarely, from digenic biallelic mutations in NEK1 and DYNC2H1 (11q22.3).

Another condition with some of the same features leading to respiratory distress is asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia 1 (208500), or Jeune syndrome.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is available for this condition but surgical treatment could be considered for specific anomalies.

References
Article Title: 

NEK1 mutations cause short-rib polydactyly syndrome type majewski

Thiel C, Kessler K, Giessl A, Dimmler A, Shalev SA, von der Haar S, Zenker M, Zahnleiter D, Stoss H, Beinder E, Abou Jamra R, Ekici AB, Schroder-Kress N, Aigner T, Kirchner T, Reis A, Brandst?SStter JH, Rauch A. NEK1 mutations cause short-rib polydactyly syndrome type majewski. Am J Hum Genet. 2011 Jan 7;88(1):106-14.

PubMed ID: 
21211617

Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous condition for which the nosology remains to be worked out.  Not all patients have ocular disease but those who survive infancy may have a pigmentary retinopathy resembling retinitis pigmentosa.  In fact, a 5 year old presented with symptoms of visual loss and night blindness only.  The severeity of the systemic malformations has so far precluded a full description of the ocular phenotype.

Systemic Features: 

The most life-threatening and characteristic systemic feature of ATD is short-ribbed thoracic constriction with respiratory insufficiency.  The chest is small and narrow and sometimes described as bell-shaped.  This deformity can lead to death by asphyxiation, and is a serious risk during infancy.  Other individuals live to adulthood and may have only minimal respiratory difficulties.  Patients who survive childhood can develop cystic renal and hepatic disease.  Pancreatic fibrosis has also been reported.  Brachydactyly and postaxial polydactyly are sometimes present and involve the feet more commonly than the hands.  Short stature secondary to short limbs is frequently noted.

Genetics

Jeune syndrome, or at least some forms of it, is an autosomal recessive condition.  Consanguinity is often present.  A locus (15q13) containing homozygous mutations in ATD has been proposed as one candidate site.  There is considerable genetic heterogeneity with at least 5 types described, all with mutations in different genes.

Another disorder with some similar features causing respiratory distress is Majewski syndrome (263520).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Assisted ventilation can be lifesaving in milder cases.  Thoracic reconstruction has also been helpful in a few individuals.  However, careful patient selection is necessary since some patients have severe pulmonary hypoplasia with underdeveloped alveoli. Ursodeoxycholic acid may slow the progression of the liver disease.

References
Article Title: 
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