ptosis

Facial Palsy, Congenital, with Ptosis and Velopharyngeal Dysfunction

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The singular ocular feature found in this condition is bilateral ptosis which may improve to some extent with age.  Patients usually compensate with a chin up posture.  A mild paresis of upgaze and some weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscles has been described in the index case.  Ocular motility is otherwise normal and Bell's phenomenon is usually present. 

Systemic Features: 

Patients have a wide uvula, absent or decreased gag reflexes, and rhinophonia aperta.  Symptoms are nonprogressive but may improve with age or therapy.  No other skeletal, neurologic, or psychomotor anomalies have been reported.

Genetics

A single 5 generation family has been reported.  The transmission pattern is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance.  Heterozygous missense mutations in the TUBB6 gene (18p11.21) are responsible for this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Some patients benefit from nasopharyngeal surgery to improve swallowing and speech.  Ptosis surgery can also be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

A TUBB6 mutation is associated with autosomal dominant non-progressive congenital facial palsy, bilateral ptosis and velopharyngeal dysfunction

Fazeli W, Herkenrath P, Stiller B, Neugebauer A, Fricke J, Lang-Roth R, Nurnberg G, Thoenes M, Becker J, Altmuller J, Volk AE, Kubisch C, Heller R. A TUBB6 mutation is associated with autosomal dominant non-progressive congenital facial palsy, bilateral ptosis and velopharyngeal dysfunction. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Oct 15;26(20):4055-4066.

PubMed ID: 
29016863

Hypotonia, Infantile, with Psychomotor Retardation And Characteristic Facies 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Anomalies of periocular structures are part of the characteristic facial morphology.  The lid fissures slant downward and epicanthal folds are with ptosis are generally present.  Strabismus and nystagmus are characteristic features.

Systemic Features: 

This is a severe congenital neurodevelopmental disorder with global delay, hypotonia, and characteristic facies.  It is usually present at birth and soon manifest as a profound intellectual delay.  Most patients do not develop speech or independent motor skills.  Feeding difficulties are evident early and often require gastric tube placement for nutrition.  Failure to thrive is common.   Most patients have seizures of a tonic-clonic or atonic type which may be controlled with medication. 

Microcephaly, brachycephaly, plagiocephaly, and brachycephaly have been described.  A high forehead with frontal bossing, facial hypotonia, triangular facies have been described.  The ears are low-set and posteriorly rotated.  The upper lip is often thin and the mouth is commonly open.  The neck appears short, the nose is bulbous while the nasal bridge is prominent and the nares may be anteverted.

Brain imaging is normal in some patients but there is evidence of generalized cerebral atrophy, with a thin corpus callosum and decreased myelination in others.  Variable features include scoliosis, hip contractures, muscle wasting, and dyskinesias are sometimes seen.

Genetics

This disorder is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the UNC80 gene (2q34).  

For somewhat similar disorders see IHPRF1 (615419) and IHPRF3 (616900).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability

Stray-Pedersen A, Cobben JM, Prescott TE, Lee S, Cang C, Aranda K, Ahmed S, Alders M, Gerstner T, Aslaksen K, Tetreault M, Qin W, Hartley T, Jhangiani SN, Muzny DM, Tarailo-Graovac M, van Karnebeek CD; Care4Rare Canada Consortium; Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lupski JR, Ren D, Yoon G. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Jan 7;98(1):202-9.

PubMed ID: 
26708751

UNC80 mutation causes a syndrome of hypotonia, severe intellectual disability, dyskinesia and dysmorphism, similar to that caused by mutations in its interacting cation channel NALCN

Perez Y, Kadir R, Volodarsky M, Noyman I, Flusser H, Shorer Z, Gradstein L, Birnbaum RY, Birk OS. UNC80 mutation causes a syndrome of hypotonia, severe intellectual disability, dyskinesia and dysmorphism, similar to that caused by mutations in its interacting cation channel NALCN. J Med Genet. 2016 Jun;53(6):397-402.

PubMed ID: 
26545877

Al Kaissi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reported facial dysmorphism features include periocular anomalies of ptosis, hypertelorism, down-slanting lid fissures, and epicanthal folds.  

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is somewhat variable.  Intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with hypotonia are common.   Moderate to severe intellectual disability is usually present and speech may be severely delayed.  The forehead is narrow, the nasal tip is broad, the nasal bridge is depressed, and the ears are low-set and posteriorly rotated.   Small hands and sometimes joint laxity are commonly present.  Cervical spine abnormalities including clefting, improper fusion, and segmentation anomalies are common.

Brain MRI may be normal but a small corpus callosum was present in some patients.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the CDK10 gene (16q24.3) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays

Windpassinger C, Piard J, Bonnard C, Alfadhel M, Lim S, Bisteau X, Blouin S, Ali NB, Ng AYJ, Lu H, Tohari S, Talib SZA, van Hul N, Caldez MJ, Van Maldergem L, Yigit G, Kayserili H, Youssef SA, Coppola V, de Bruin A, Tessarollo L, Choi H, Rupp V, Roetzer K, Roschger P, Klaushofer K, Altmuller J, Roy S, Venkatesh B, Ganger R, Grill F, Ben Chehida F, Wollnik B, Altunoglu U, Al Kaissi A, Reversade B, Kaldis P. CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Sep 7;101(3):391-403.

PubMed ID: 
28886341

Birk-Landau-Perez Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have oculomotor apraxia, saccadic pursuits, lack of fixation, and ptosis.  No pigmentary changes were seen in the fundi but the optic nerves have not been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive disorder in which psychomotor regression and loss of speech develop by 1 to 2 years of age, often appearing as the first sign of abnormalities.  Cognitive impairment can progress to profound intellectual disability.  Older patients have limb and truncal ataxia and experience frequent falls.  Muscle tone in the limbs is increased and children often exhibit dyskinesia, dystonia, and axial hypotonia.  General muscle weakness is often present.  No abnormalities have been seen on brain imaging.

Some patients develop a nephropathy with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and hyperechogenic kidneys though deterioration of the renal disease is slow.  Renal biopsy in one patient revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis but no individuals have reached end-stage renal failure.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SLC30A9 gene (4p13) are responsible for this disorder.  A single multigenerational consanguineous Bedouin family of 6 affected individuals has been reported with a transmission pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.  Electrolytes should be monitored and metabolic issues resulting from kidney malfunction may need to be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Abnormal eye movements with prominent external ophthalmoplegia are hallmarks of this disease.  An oculomotor nerve palsy with limited abduction and some degree of facial palsy are usually present.  The Moebius sequence is present in many patients.  Epicanthal folds, downslanting lid fissures, and ptosis are frequently seen.

Systemic Features: 

Clinical signs are highly variable.  Unusual facies with features of the Pierre Robin complex are characteristic.  Micrognathia and retrognathia are often present with glossoptosis.  Hypotonia and failure to thrive are commonly seen.  Dysphagia and even absent swallowing likely contribute to this.  Respiratory insufficiency can be present from birth, often with laryngostenosis, and some patients develop pulmonary hypertension and restrictive lung disease as adults.  Progressive scoliosis may contribute to this.  Many patients have club feet with joint contractures.  Skull formation consisting of microcephaly, or macrocephaly, or plagiocephaly is commonly seen.  Cardiac septal defects are common.

Intellectual disability is present in some but not all individuals.  Neuronal heterotopias, enlarged ventricles, reduced white matter, a small brainstem, microcalcifications, and enlarged ventricles have been observed.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygosity of the MYMK gene (9q34) is responsible for this condition.  

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome

Di Gioia SA, Connors S, Matsunami N, Cannavino J, Rose MF, Gilette NM, Artoni P, de Macena Sobreira NL, Chan WM, Webb BD, Robson CD, Cheng L, Van Ryzin C, Ramirez-Martinez A, Mohassel P, Leppert M, Scholand MB, Grunseich C, Ferreira CR, Hartman T, Hayes IM, Morgan T, Markie DM, Fagiolini M, Swift A, Chines PS, Speck-Martins CE, Collins FS, Jabs EW, Bonnemann CG, Olson EN; Moebius Syndrome Research Consortium, Carey JC, Robertson SP, Manoli I, Engle EC. A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome. Nat Commun. 2017 Jul 6;8:16077. doi: 10.1038/ncomms16077.

PubMed ID: 
28681861

Möbius sequence, Robin complex, and hypotonia: severe expression of brainstem disruption spectrum versus Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome

Verloes A, Bitoun P, Heuskin A, Amrom D, van de Broeck H, Nikkel SM, Chudley AE, Prasad AN, Rusu C, Covic M, Toutain A, Moraine C, Parisi MA, Patton M, Martin JJ, Van Thienen MN. Mobius sequence, Robin complex, and hypotonia: severe expression of brainstem disruption spectrum versus Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Jun 15;127A(3):277-87.

PubMed ID: 
15150779

Gabriele-de Vries Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A number of nondiagnostic signs occur in the periocular structures as part of the general facial dysmorphism.  There is a general fullness to the periocular area, most evident in the upper eyelids.  The lid fissures slant downward and the eyebrows are sparse.  Strabismus is often present.  Ptosis has been noted in a few individuals.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic signs are inconsistent and highly variable.  Intrauterine growth is usually below average.  Feeding problems are evident from birth.  The facial dysmorphology is highlighted by a high, broad forehead and accentuated by micrognathia and midface hypoplasia.  The ears are posteriorly rotated.  General development is delayed and milestones, if achieved, are delayed.  Behavioral problems can be manifest as anxiety and some individuals have features of the autism spectrum.  Abnormal movements such as tremor and dystonia are sometimes present.

Brain imaging may reveal delayed myelination, frontal gliosis, white matter abnormalities, and enlarged ventricles.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the YY1 gene (14q32) have been identified in this condition.  The gene is a transcription factor that acts both as a repressor and an activator in specific circumstances.  Virtually all cases occur de novo.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective generalized treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction

Gabriele M, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Germain PL, Vitriolo A, Kumar R, Douglas E, Haan E, Kosaki K, Takenouchi T, Rauch A, Steindl K, Frengen E, Misceo D, Pedurupillay CRJ, Stromme P, Rosenfeld JA, Shao Y, Craigen WJ, Schaaf CP, Rodriguez-Buritica D, Farach L, Friedman J, Thulin P, McLean SD, Nugent KM, Morton J, Nicholl J, Andrieux J, Stray-Pedersen A, Chambon P, Patrier S, Lynch SA, Kjaergaard S, Torring PM, Brasch-Andersen C, Ronan A, van Haeringen A, Anderson PJ, Powis Z, Brunner HG, Pfundt R, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers JHM, van Bon BWM, Lelieveld S, Gilissen C, Nillesen WM, Vissers LELM, Gecz J, Koolen DA, Testa G, de Vries BBA. YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jun 1;100(6):907-925.

PubMed ID: 
28575647

Ayme-Gripp Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most patients have congenital cataracts which may be mild and "oil drop" in appearance.  The eyes appear far apart, the eyebrows are broad, and the palpebral fissures may slant upward or downward.  Ptosis has been reported.  Aphakic glaucoma has been reported in one juvenile who had unilateral cataract surgery at 5 months of age.

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is heterogeneous and not all patients have all features.  The facial features are said to resemble those of the Down syndrome with brachycephaly, a high forehead, and a flat midface with shallow orbits and malar hypoplasia.  The ears are small, low-set, and posteriorly rotated.  The nose is short and the nasal bridge is broad and flat.  The mouth is small and the upper lip is thin.  The scalp hair may be sparse and the nails sometimes appear dystrophic.

The fingers are sometimes brachydactylous and tapered.  Short stature is common and the joints may have limited motion.  Dislocation of the radial heads is seen rarely while radioulnar synostosis has been seen in a few individuals.  Postnatal short stature is common.

Seizures often occur.  The ventricles appear large and cerebral atrophy has been reported.  Intellectual disability and mental retardation are common. However, at least one individual attended university although he had been diagnosed in childhood with Asberger disease.   Neurosensory hearing loss is common.

Genetics

This autosomal dominant condition results from heterozygous mutations in the MAF (16q32.2) gene.  At least one mother/son transmission event has been reported.

Many of the same features are seen in what has been called the Fine-Lubinsky syndrome (601353) but without mutations in the MAF gene.  It may not be a unique disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported but specific anomalies such as cataracts should be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies

Niceta M, Stellacci E, Gripp KW, Zampino G, Kousi M, Anselmi M, Traversa A, Ciolfi A, Stabley D, Bruselles A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Prudente S, Fiorenza MT, Boitani C, Philip N, Niyazov D, Leoni C, Nakane T, Keppler-Noreuil K, Braddock SR, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Palleschi A, Campeau PM, Lee BH, Pouponnot C, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Katsanis N, Sol-Church K, Tartaglia M. Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 7;96(5):816-25.

PubMed ID: 
25865493

Congenital Heart Defects, Dysmorphic Facies, and Intellectual Developmental Disorder

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The dysmorphic facial features primarily involve the periocular structures.  These include hypertelorism, ptosis, epicanthal folds, strabismus and upslanted palpebral fissures.

Systemic Features: 

Septal defects involving both the atrium and the ventricle are consistently present.  Pulmonary valve abnormalities are present in some patients.

Posteriorly rotated pinnae and a small mouth with a thin upper lip have been observed.  Camptodactyly and clinodactyly are common.  Some patients have mild microcephaly.

Global developmental delay is a consistent feature manifest as delays in walking and speech and eventual intellectual disability.  Feeding difficulties are common.  Hypotonia and hypermobile joints are often noted.  Imaging of the brain may reveal agenesis of the corpus callosum, incomplete formation of the inferior vermis, and leukomalacia of periventricular tissue.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations have been identified in the CDK13 gene (7p14.1) in seven unrelated individuals.  Heterozygous parents may not have the full phenotype.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the generalized condition.

References
Article Title: 

Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing

Sifrim A, Hitz MP, Wilsdon A, Breckpot J, Turki SH, Thienpont B, McRae J, Fitzgerald TW, Singh T, Swaminathan GJ, Prigmore E, Rajan D, Abdul-Khaliq H, Banka S, Bauer UM, Bentham J, Berger F, Bhattacharya S, Bu'Lock F, Canham N, Colgiu IG, Cosgrove C, Cox H, Daehnert I, Daly A, Danesh J, Fryer A, Gewillig M, Hobson E, Hoff K, Homfray T; INTERVAL Study., Kahlert AK, Ketley A, Kramer HH, Lachlan K, Lampe AK, Louw JJ, Manickara AK, Manase D, McCarthy KP, Metcalfe K, Moore C, Newbury-Ecob R, Omer SO, Ouwehand WH, Park SM, Parker MJ, Pickardt T, Pollard MO, Robert L, Roberts DJ, Sambrook J, Setchfield K, Stiller B, Thornborough C, Toka O, Watkins H, Williams D, Wright M, Mital S, Daubeney PE, Keavney B, Goodship J; UK10K Consortium., Abu-Sulaiman RM, Klaassen S, Wright CF, Firth HV, Barrett JC, Devriendt K, FitzPatrick DR, Brook JD; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study., Hurles ME. Distinct genetic architectures for syndromic and nonsyndromic congenital heart defects identified by exome sequencing. Nat Genet. 2016 Sep;48(9):1060-5.

PubMed ID: 
27479907

Intellectual Disability with Dysmorphic Facies and Ptosis

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes appear widely spaced and the lid fissures slant downward.  Ptosis and blepharophimosis are present.  Strabismus is an uncommon feature.

Systemic Features: 

The characteristic facial profile (round, flat) is evident at birth. Microcephaly has been seen in some children.  Low birthweight is common.  Most infants feed poorly with general growth delay and short stature becoming evident in childhood.  Hypotonia and joint hypermobility are constant features.  Gross and fine motor movements appear uncoordinated.  Expressive language is delayed and impaired.  Intellectual disability is mild and achievement of developmental milestones may be delayed.  Seizures are seen in about half of affected individuals.  Brain MRIs may reveal mild white matter anomalies.  Spinal fusion among cervical vertebrae is common.

Individuals may live to adulthood.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the BRPF1 gene (3p25) are responsible for this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in Histone Acetylase Modifier BRPF1 Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Form of Intellectual Disability with Associated Ptosis

Mattioli F, Schaefer E, Magee A, Mark P, Mancini GM, Dieterich K, Von Allmen G, Alders M, Coutton C, van Slegtenhorst M, Vieville G, Engelen M, Cobben JM, Juusola J, Pujol A, Mandel JL, Piton A. Mutations in Histone Acetylase Modifier BRPF1 Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Form of Intellectual Disability with Associated Ptosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jan 5;100(1):105-116.

PubMed ID: 
27939639

Mutations in the Chromatin Regulator Gene BRPF1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Deficient Histone Acetylation

Yan K, Rousseau J, Littlejohn RO, Kiss C, Lehman A, Rosenfeld JA, Stumpel CT, Stegmann AP, Robak L, Scaglia F, Nguyen TT, Fu H, Ajeawung NF, Camurri MV, Li L, Gardham A, Panis B, Almannai M, Sacoto MJ, Baskin B, Ruivenkamp C, Xia F, Bi W; DDD Study.; CAUSES Study., Cho MT, Potjer TP, Santen GW, Parker MJ, Canham N, McKinnon M, Potocki L, MacKenzie JJ, Roeder ER, Campeau PM, Yang XJ. Mutations in the Chromatin Regulator Gene BRPF1 Cause Syndromic Intellectual Disability and Deficient Histone Acetylation. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jan 5;100(1):91-104.

PubMed ID: 
27939640

Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia has an adult onset, usually in the late second or early third decade of life.  Ptosis is commonly present as well.

Systemic Features: 

This condition has been called a mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE).  Gastrointestinal problems are among the most disabling with poor absorption of foodstuffs leading to weight loss, marked cachexia, and chronic malnutrition.  Added to this are gastroparesis, constipation, vomiting, and intermittent diarrhea with abdominal pain.  Many individuals develop diverticulosis and diverticulitis that may lead to intestinal perforations.  The combined intestinal dysfunctions can lead to signs of intestinal pseudoobstruction.

Many patients have a progressive sensorineural hearing loss.  Leukoencephalopathy, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes mild proximal limb weakness may be present.

Genetics

Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in the TYMP gene (22q13.33) are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder.  This nuclear gene is active in the maintainence of mitochondrial DNA.  When the gene is dysfunctional, the mitochondria can be depleted to a variable extent and they may contain multiple deletions and point mutations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no effective treatment for the overall condition.  Nutritionists can provide important advice on diet to maintain good nutrition.  Regular monitoring by gastroenterologists is important.  Perforations of the bowels require prompt surgical repair.  

References
Article Title: 

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: an autosomal recessive disorder due to thymidine phosphorylase mutations

Nishino I, Spinazzola A, Papadimitriou A, Hammans S, Steiner I, Hahn CD, Connolly AM, Verloes A, Guimaraes J, Maillard I, Hamano H, Donati MA, Semrad CE, Russell JA, Andreu AL, Hadjigeorgiou GM, Vu TH, Tadesse S, Nygaard TG, Nonaka I, Hirano I, Bonilla E, Rowland LP, DiMauro S, Hirano M. Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy: an autosomal recessive disorder due to thymidine phosphorylase mutations. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jun;47(6):792-800.

PubMed ID: 
10852545

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