psychomotor retardation

Hypotonia, Infantile, with Psychomotor Retardation And Characteristic Facies 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus, strabismus and sometimes optic atrophy have been noted.  Poor fixation may be present.   

Systemic Features: 

This progressive disorder can be evident at birth based on the facial dysmorphism.  The face is triangular, the forehead is prominent, the nose is small, the ears appear large and low-set.  The mouth appears wide with a thin upper lip.  Early development may be near normal for the first 6 months but thereafter psychomotor regression and slow physical growth are evident.  Patients have microcephaly and seldom achieve normal milestones.  Spasticity in the extremities and truncal hypotonia with distal muscle atrophy are evident.  The face appears triangular, the forehead is prominent, the nose is small, and the ears appear large and low-set.  Pectus carinatum and pes varus may be present.   Males often have cryptorchidism.

Brain imaging has revealed cerebellar atrophy and "while matter abnormalities".  Sural nerve biopsies show evidence of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

Some individuals are less severely affected, retain the ability to speak, and are able to walk at least into the second decade of life.

Genetics

Based on transmission patterns this condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive caused by mutations in in the NALCN gene (13q32.3-q33.1.

For somewhat similar disorders caused by mutations in other genes see IHPRF2 (616801) and IHPRF3 (616900).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Cerebellar Atrophy, Visual Impairment, and Psychomotor Retardation

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients usually have deep-set eyes.  Cortical visual impairment has been described in one patient but optic atrophy has been seen in another.  The VEP and ERG are described as 'abnormal'.  Strabismus, hyperopia, and myopia are sometimes seen.

Systemic Features: 

Progressive microcephaly is often noted.  Truncal hypotonia and scoliosis may be present while muscle tone is increased in the extremities in the presence of diminished deep tendon reflexes in other patients.  Dystonic posturing occurs in some families.  Gingival hyperplasia is a common feature and retrognathia is often present.

Brain imaging reveals progressive cerebellar atrophy and a foreshortened corpus callosum in all families.  Various degrees of cerebral atrophy have been identified while intellectual disability may be marked.  Speech delay is common.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition associated with homozygous mutations in the EMC1 gene (1p36.13).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatnent has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy

Harel T, Yesil G, Bayram Y, Coban-Akdemir Z, Charng WL, Karaca E, Al Asmari A, Eldomery MK, Hunter JV, Jhangiani SN, Rosenfeld JA, Pehlivan D, El-Hattab AW, Saleh MA, LeDuc CA, Muzny D, Boerwinkle E; Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, Gibbs RA, Chung WK, Yang Y, Belmont JW, Lupski JR. Monoallelic and Biallelic Variants in EMC1 Identified in Individuals with Global Developmental Delay, Hypotonia, Scoliosis, and Cerebellar Atrophy. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Mar 3;98(3):562-70.

PubMed ID: 
26942288

Immunodeficiency-Centromeric Instability-Facial Anomalies Syndrome 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have been described as having variable oculofacial features including epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, strabismus, and 'tapetoretinal degeneration'.    

Systemic Features: 

The full phenotype is variable and unknown based on the 5 reported patients from 4 families of whom 3 were consanguineous.  Recurrent infections (especially respiratory and otitis media) seem to be among the most consistent features.  Others include intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay including psychomotor delays, a flat midface with various anomalies, low-set ears, renal dysgenesis, polydactyly, severe agammaglobulinemia, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism.  Normal T-cell function and normal B cells are present.  Conductive hearing loss, polydactyly, and scoliosis may be features as well.  Two of the 5 reported patients with ICF3 were reported to have mental retardation.  One patient died at the age of 26 years.

Genetics

Homozygosity of CDCA7 (2q31.1) mutations with centromeric instability and hypomethylation of selected juxtacentromeric heterochromatin regions is responsible for this (ICF3) autosomal recessive condition.  There is genetic heterogeneity in ICF (ICF1, ICF2, ICF3, and ICF4 [see 242860).   

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome

Thijssen PE, Ito Y, Grillo G, Wang J, Velasco G, Nitta H, Unoki M, Yoshihara M, Suyama M, Sun Y, Lemmers RJ, de Greef JC, Gennery A, Picco P, Kloeckener-Gruissem B, Gungor T, Reisli I, Picard C, Kebaili K, Roquelaure B, Iwai T, Kondo I, Kubota T, van Ostaijen-Ten Dam MM, van Tol MJ, Weemaes C, Francastel C, van der Maarel SM, Sasaki H. Mutations in CDCA7 and HELLS cause immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 28;6:7870.

PubMed ID: 
26216346

Takenouchi-Kosaki Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular phenotype consists of mild ptosis, synophrys, exotropia, and eversion of the lower eyelids.  One of two reported patients was described as having bilateral retinal dysplasia and a falciform retinal detachment in one eye.  Visual acuity is significantly impaired.

Systemic Features: 

Affected individuals may be of normal birth weight but skeletal growth is subnormal and there is general developmental delay.  Congenial cardiac anomalies such as persistent ductus arteriosus may be present.  Lymphedema has been noted at one year of age and probably persists throughout life.  Protein-losing enteropathy secondary to intestinal lymphangiectasia was present in one individual.  The same patient had pericardial effusion, hydrothorax, and ascites.  Intellectual disability may be severe although there is no evidence of progression.  Neurosensory hearing loss has been described in one patient.

Thrombocytopenia is a consistent finding and has been described as early as one year of age.  Platelet numbers as low as 52,000/microL have been recorded and appear larger than normal. 

Genetics

Both unrelated female patients reported have heterozygous missense mutations in the CDC42 gene (1p36). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Cleft Palate, Psychomotor Retardation, and Distinctive Facial Features

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The facial dysmorphism is present at birth together with the cleft palate.  Downslanting lid fissures, widely spaced eyes, and ptosis may be present.  Eyebrows have been described as sparse in one patient.  Strabismus and ocular apraxia are present in some children. 

Systemic Features: 

Three patients have been reported, one of whom also had a second deletion in a gene implicated in the Kabuki syndrome.  This individual had hypertrichosis and synophyrys whereas the others had sparse eyebrow and temporal hair.  The teeth are malformed with some conically shaped and widely spaced.  The forehead is prominent and the fingers are tapered and brachydactylous with 5th finger clinodactyly.

There are significant delays in achieving developmental milestones.  Hypotonia has been described.  Speech and walking in particular may be delayed for several years.   Physical growth may be delayed as well.  A variety of brain anomalies have been seen in some but not all individuals.  Hypospadius and cryptorchidism have been described.  All children reported have palatal anomalies.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the KDM1A gene have been identified in two patients.  In another report a single patient had an out-of-frame 3-nucleotide deletion in the ANKRD11 gene (as sometimes found in Kabuki syndrome) plus a mutation in the KDM1A gene. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions via social networking: de novo variants in KDM1A cause developmental delay and distinctive facial features

Chong JX, Yu JH, Lorentzen P, Park KM, Jamal SM, Tabor HK, Rauch A, Saenz MS, Boltshauser E, Patterson KE, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ. Gene discovery for Mendelian conditions via social networking: de novo variants in KDM1A cause developmental delay and distinctive facial features. Genet Med. 2015 Dec 10. doi: 10.1038/gim.2015.161. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
26656649

Vici Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Congenital cataracts, both unilateral and bilateral are common.  The fundus appears hypopigmented. Nystagmus, optic neuropathy, and mild ptosis have been reported.  Nothing is known regarding acuity. 

Systemic Features: 

Infants at birth have striking hypotonia with a weak cry and feeding difficulties.  Dysmorphic features such as micrognathia, microcephaly, low-set ears, some degree of generalized hypopigmentation (hair and skin), and a broad nose with a long philtrum may be present. The face may appear triangular.  Cleft lip and palate may be present.  Evidence of cardiac dysfunction may also be present early with both dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reported.  Hearing loss has been reported in some individuals.  Recurrent infections are common and immunologic studies have revealed, in some patients, granulocytopenia, low T cell counts (primarily T4+ cells), thymic dysplasia, and low levels of IgG.  Seizures may occur.  Liver dysfunction has been variably reported.

Neurological and brain evaluations have reported agenesis of the corpus callosum, defects in the septum pellucidum, and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis along with pontocerebellar hypoplasia.  Psychomotor retardation is severe in most individuals along with general growth retardation.

Histologic studies of skeletal muscle fibers have shown considerable variation in fiber size, centralized nuclei, fucsinophilic inclusions, and enlarged abnormal mitochondria.  Other central nervous system abnormalities include in some individuals a paucity of white matter, schizencephaly, neuronal heterotopias, and enlargement of the ventricles.

The cumulative effects of these multiorgan abnormalities lead to death within the first year or two of life, generally of heart failure or sepsis. 

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the EPG5 gene (18q12.3) have been associated with this condition.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Vici syndrome: a

Byrne S, Dionisi-Vici C, Smith L, Gautel M, Jungbluth H. Vici syndrome: a
review
. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 Feb 29;11(1):

PubMed ID: 
4772338

Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy

Cullup T, Kho AL, Dionisi-Vici C, Brandmeier B, Smith F, Urry Z, Simpson MA, Yau S, Bertini E, McClelland V, Al-Owain M, Koelker S, Koerner C, Hoffmann GF, Wijburg FA, ten Hoedt AE, Rogers RC, Manchester D, Miyata R, Hayashi M, Said E, Soler D, Kroisel PM, Windpassinger C, Filloux FM, Al-Kaabi S, Hertecant J, Del Campo M, Buk S, Bodi I, Goebel HH, Sewry CA, Abbs S, Mohammed S, Josifova D, Gautel M, Jungbluth H. Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy. Nat Genet. 2013 Jan;45(1):83-7.

PubMed ID: 
23222957

Cerebral Atrophy, Autosomal Recessive

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Severe visual impairment is noted before one year of age when infants cease following objects in their environment.  Cortical visual impairment has been diagnosed although 'atrophic optic fundi' and hypotrophic optic nerves and fovea have also been described.  Nystagmus has been observed as well.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly relative to age norms is evident usually by 2 months of age and there is little subsequent growth of the skull.  Regression of developmental milestones is noted by 4 months of age with signs of irritability, akathisia, spasticity, visual impairment, seizures, and increased startle responses.  Sucking responses and eye-to-eye contact are usually lost by 6 months of age.  Repetitive body stiffening and extension of arms in older individuals consistent with seizure activity has been confirmed by EEG in at least one infant.  Imaging consistently reveals cerebral atrophy with ventriculomegaly and general loss of brain volume. Progressive muscle weakness is evident after about 1 year of age and oral feeding is impaired. There is complete lack of responsive interaction beyond irritability and agitation while motor function is limited to involuntary responses.  Two individuals have lived into the second decade of life.

Genetics

This condition has been described in 4 individuals who were products of consanquineous Amish couples.  Homozygous mutations in the TMPRSS4 gene (11q23.3), whose product is a serine transmembrane protease, seems to be responsible.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

LEOPARD Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ocular hypertelorism is a characteristic of all forms of the LEOPARD syndrome.  The lid fissures may be downward slanting.  Combined with the inverted triangle facies, the appearance is similar to that of the Noonan syndrome (163950).

Systemic Features: 

This is a multisystem disorder manifest in skin, heart, skeletal, genital, neurologic and auditory systems.  Generalized lentiginosis is characteristic but they may not be present until age 4 or 5 years following the appearance of cafe-au-lait spots.  Some patients have patchy scalp hair loss.  The facies bears some resemblance to the Noonan syndrome but usually without the short, webbed neck.  Sensorineural hearing loss is found in 20% of individuals.  Cardiac conduction defects, pulmonic stenosis, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are often (85%) present.  Cognitive defects are present in 30% of patients and some individuals have been described as mentally retarded.  Juvenile behavior may be evident in the presence of normal intelligence.  Hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and gonadal infantilism have been seen in some patients.  The ears are often malformed (87%).  Thoracic skeletal anomalies have been described in 75% of patients.  Although somatic growth is described as slow, short stature is present in less than half of patients.

Rare patients without lentigines are said to resemble the Noonan syndrome (163950) in appearance.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the PTPN11 gene (12q24) are most frequently responsible for this autosomal dominant disorder.  The same gene is mutated in more than half of patients with the Noonan syndrome (NS1)(163950) with which it is allelic.  Other mutations that cause what is called LEOPARD syndrome are RAF1 and BRAF.

Other types of LEOPARD syndrome such as LEOPARD syndrome 2 (611554) are far more rare but also share mutations with Noonan syndrome (RAF1 mutations in Noonan syndrome 5) (611553) and LEOPARD syndrome 3 (613707) with mutations in BRAF similar to that seen in NS7 (613706).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Assistive hearing devices, especially cochlear implants, may be helpful.  Special education can be of value in more mildly affected individuals.Treatment of cryptorchidism is similar to that of other children.

References
Article Title: 

Révész Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is likely a severe form of dyskeratosis congenita with an exudative retinopathy in addition to the usual lid deformities, corneal opacification, conjunctival scarring.  The exudates are often present in early childhood, and may be of sufficient volume to present as leukocoria mimicking a retrolental mass.  The exudates extend through nearly all layers of the retina and are said to resemble Coats retinopathy. Vitreous hemorrhage and opacification has also been reported.  Severe vision loss and blindness may occur depending on the degree of retinal and vitreous disease.

Systemic Features: 

Patients with Revesz syndrome have cerebral calcifications, and hypoplasia of the cerebellum in addition to mild signs of dyskeratosis congenita such as a reticulated skin pattern, nail dysplasia, and oral leukoplakia.  Ataxia is a prominent sign but is not present in all patients.  Bone marrow failure with pancytopenia and a high risk of malignancies, however, are serious problems.  Aplastic anemia and neutropenia may present in early childhood while other signs may not appear until late childhood.  Sparse hair, intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight are also features.   

Few patients with Revesz syndrome have been reported and the clinical features have not been fully delineated.  It is important to note that there is a large amount of clinical variation among patients.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the TINF2 gene (14q12) have been found in Revesz syndrome.  Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the autosomal dominant form of dyskeratosis congenita (613990) suggesting that the two disorders, if distinct, are allelic.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Bone marrow failure may respond favorably to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, at least for some time. Lifelong medical monitoring is required for the systemic and ocular disease.

References
Article Title: 

GM3 Synthase Deficiency

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Profound optic atrophy is the primary ocular feature in this disorder.  ERG amplitudes are normal.  Visual impairment is pronounced with no reactions to environmental stimuli but it is not possible to determine how much of this is due to general CNS disease.  Eye movements are random and uncoordinated. 

Systemic Features: 

Infants may appear normal at birth but within a few months develop signs of developmental stagnation with onset of tonic-clonic seizures.  Irritability, poor feeding, vomiting and failure to thrive are important features.  Generalized hypotonia is evident but lower limb deep tendon reflexes may be present.  Normal developmental milestones are never achieved and patients are unresponsive to their environment.  Older individuals develop non-purposeful choreothetoid movements.  The EEG shows multifocal epileptiform discharges and brain MRIs show diffuse atrophy in older patients.         

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to homozygous mutations in (ST3GAL5) (2p11.2) encoding sialytransferase (SIAT9).

The nonsense mutation results in a deficiency of functional GM3 synthase important in the utilization of lactosylceramide necessary for the production of downstream gangliosides.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment for the enzyme deficiency.  Seizures respond poorly to anti-epileptic medications.

References
Article Title: 

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