PITX2

Iridogoniodysgenesis, Type 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The iris stroma is hypoplastic resulting in a usually dark chocolate color which can suggest the diagnosis at birth.  It may, however, appear slate gray in lightly pigmented individuals.  The pupil is usually normal in morphology and location.  Glaucoma may detectable in the newborn period but it may also not be diagnosed until the 4th decade or later.  It is widely accepted that the anterior chamber angle is anomalous but the architectural and cellular details are lacking.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been described.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from heterozygous mutations in the PITX2 gene (4q25).

The same gene may be mutated in ring dermoid of the cornea (180550), Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome 1 (180500), Peters anomaly (604229), and in Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly plus (109120).

Type 1 iridogoniodysgenesis (IRID1) (601631) has many clinical similarities but is caused by DNA alterations in the FOXC1 gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Glaucoma is the most frequent result of the anterior chamber dysgenesis in IRID2.  It is often difficult to control.  Early detection is of the utmost importance and all members of at-risk families require lifelong surveillance.

References
Article Title: 

Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome, Type 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders with overlapping features.  Common to all types are the presence of ocular, dental, facial, skeletal abnormalities and autosomal dominant inheritance.  Anterior chamber dysgenesis of some form is universally present and severe glaucoma occurs in 50% of patients.  This may have its onset in childhood with typical symptoms of congenital glaucoma such as photophobia, excessive tearing and corneal clouding.  Hypoplasia of the iris is common and when progressive may result in an ectopic pupil and/or pseudopolycoria.  Iris insertion and Schwalbe's line are often anteriorly displaced with iridocorneal adhesions, a pattern that leads to the inclusion of this disorder among those with iridogoniodysgenesis or anterior chamber dysgenesis.  Pupillary ectropion of the posterior pigmented layer of the iris may be seen.

There is considerable clinical overlap among conditions with iris dysgenesis.  Some patients with typical systemic features of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome may even have typical anterior chamber features of Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly in one eye and severe iris hypoplasia resembling aniridia in the other.

Systemic Features: 

Dental anomalies and mid-facial hypoplasia secondary to underdeveloped maxillary sinuses are among the most common systemic features in type 1.  The nasal root often appears abnormally broad and the lower lip appears to protrude. The teeth are frequently small and conical in shape with wide spaces between them (diastema).  Some teeth may be missing.  The umbilicus may fail to involute normally and retains excessive, redundant skin that sometimes leads to the erroneous diagnosis of an umbilical hernia for which unnecessary surgery may be performed.  Hypospadius is frequently present while cardiac defects, sensorineural deafness, and anal stenosis are less common.

Genetics

There is clinical and genetic heterogeneity in this syndrome and precise classification of many families remains elusive without knowing the genotype.  Mutations in at least four genes are responsible and all are are responsible for phenotypes transmitted in autosomal dominant patterns.  Type 1 discussed here is caused by a mutation in the homeobox transcription factor gene, PITX2, located at 4q25-q26.  A type of iris hypoplasia (IH)/iridogoniodysgenesis (IGDS) (IRID2; 137600) disorder has been classified separately but is caused by a mutation in PITX2 as well and many cases have the same systemic features.  Mutations in the same gene have also been found in ring dermoid of the cornea (180550) and in some cases of Peters anomaly (604229).

RIEG2 (601499) is rare but a deletion of 13q14 has been reported in several cases.  Mapping in a large family with 11 affected individuals yielded a locus in the same region.  Clinical signs overlap types 1 and 3 with dental, craniofacial, and ocular features, but with hearing impairment and rare umbilical anomalies.

Mutations in the FOXC1 gene (6p25) may be responsible for RIEG3 (602482).  However, a family has been reported with a severe 'Axenfeld-Rieger phenotype' in which a digenic etiology may have been responsible: patients had mutations in both FOXC1 and PITX2

Heterozygous mutations in the PRDM5 gene (4q25-q26) have been identified in 4 members of a Pakistani family with typical features of the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. It is labeled type 4 Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome in this database. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

The presence of glaucoma requires prompt and vigorous treatment but control is difficult with blindness too often the result.  Oral surgery may be beneficial for dental problems.  Low vision aids can be useful.

References
Article Title: 

The Rieger syndrome

Jorgenson RJ, Levin LS, Cross HE, Yoder F, Kelly TE. The Rieger syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1978;2(3):307-18.

PubMed ID: 
263445
Subscribe to RSS - PITX2