optic nerve hypoplasia

Coloboma, Microphthalmia, Albinism, and Deafness

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A 5 year old male has been described with uveal colobomas in microphthalmic eyes plus small corneas with a pannus, dense cataracts, translucent irides, and hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eyes.  A brain MRI showed hypoplasia of the optic nerves and chiasm.   

A 9 month old female from another family had severe microphthalmia and small optic nerves.  The internal ocular features were not reported.

Systemic Features: 

The complete phenotype is uncertain since it is based on only two reported and unrelated individuals.  The head circumference one one patient was consistent with macrocephaly accompanied by frontal bossing, shallow orbits, preauricular pits and posteriorly rotated ears.  A skeletal survey revealed evidence for osteopetrosis.  He had a sensorineural hearing deficit said to be congenital in onset.

The other patient, a 9 month old female, belonged to another nonconsanguineous family, and had similar skeletal and craniofacial features with the addition of micrognathia and hypotonia.  Congenital neurosensory hearing loss and general lack of pigmentation were noted.

All four parents have congenital sensorineural hearing loss, blue irides and fair skin with premature graying of hair.  Four sibs in the two families have phenotypes similar to that of the parents.  Only one child, a female, had no features of the phenotype.

Genetics

This condition, so far reported only in a male and a female in unrelated families, is the result of doubly heterozygous mutations in the MITF gene (3p13).  One mutation that causes Waardenburg syndrome 2  (WS2A) (193510) is combined with a dominant-negative allele (c.952_954delAGA [p.Arg318del]) to produce the phenotype.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Optic Atrophy 11

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is seen as early as 5 years of age but may be congenital in origin as hypoplasia of the optic nerve was present in all patients.  Three of 4 affected children also were myopic.

Systemic Features: 

This is a form of mitochondriopathy with considerable clinical heterogeneity.  A single consanguineous family with 4 affected children of ages 5-16 years of age has been reported.

Common features include short stature, microcephaly (1 had macrocephaly), hearing impairment. Ataxia, dysmetria, and athetotic movements may be present.  Motor and mental development are delayed as is expressive speech.  Intellectual disability is present in all 4 patients.  Leukoencephalopathy was seen in all patients and one had brain atrophy.  Cerebellar hypoplasia was present in 2 of four patients.

Muscle mitochondria in one patient had morphologic changes.  Lactate levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in the blood and CSF fluid of three patients.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the YME1L1 gene (10p12.1) were responsible for this condition in 4 offspring of a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family.   This is a nuclear encoded mitochondrial gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.Hom

References
Article Title: 

Chorioretinopathy with Microcephaly 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes are not notably small although several patients have been reported to have significant hyperopia.  Vision can be impaired and some individuals have early-onset nystagmus.  The ERG responses are attenuated and may be absent.  The retina is dysplastic with multiple atrophic punched-out lesions, attenuated retinal vessels, and sparse pigmentation. Large retinal folds have been described and one patient developed a retinal detachment.  Optic atrophy was noted in one individual.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly of 3-4 standard deviations below normal is a constant feature.  Motor and language abilities can be mildly delayed and  several patients have had mild learning difficulties.   Brain imaging has been normal in most individuals but a shortened and thin corpus callosum was present in one patient.

Genetics

Family and genetic evidence suggest autosomal recessive inheritance.  Compound heterozygous mutations in the TUBGCP4 gene (15q15.3) code for part of a protein complex involved in microtubule organization.

For a somewhat similar condition with a different mutation involving the same microtubule complex see Chorioretinopathy with Microcephaly 1 (251270).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Low vision aids may be helpful in selected patients.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in TUBGCP4 Alter Microtubule Organization via the γ-Tubulin Ring Complex in Autosomal-Recessive Microcephaly with Chorioretinopathy

Scheidecker S, Etard C, Haren L, Stoetzel C, Hull S, Arno G, Plagnol V, Drunat S, Passemard S, Toutain A, Obringer C, Koob M, Geoffroy V, Marion V, Strahle U, Ostergaard P, Verloes A, Merdes A, Moore AT, Dollfus H. Mutations in TUBGCP4 Alter Microtubule Organization via the g-Tubulin Ring Complex in Autosomal-Recessive Microcephaly with Chorioretinopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 Apr 2;96(4):666-74.

PubMed ID: 
25817018

Cerebral Atrophy, Autosomal Recessive

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Severe visual impairment is noted before one year of age when infants cease following objects in their environment.  Cortical visual impairment has been diagnosed although 'atrophic optic fundi' and hypotrophic optic nerves and fovea have also been described.  Nystagmus has been observed as well.

Systemic Features: 

Microcephaly relative to age norms is evident usually by 2 months of age and there is little subsequent growth of the skull.  Regression of developmental milestones is noted by 4 months of age with signs of irritability, akathisia, spasticity, visual impairment, seizures, and increased startle responses.  Sucking responses and eye-to-eye contact are usually lost by 6 months of age.  Repetitive body stiffening and extension of arms in older individuals consistent with seizure activity has been confirmed by EEG in at least one infant.  Imaging consistently reveals cerebral atrophy with ventriculomegaly and general loss of brain volume. Progressive muscle weakness is evident after about 1 year of age and oral feeding is impaired. There is complete lack of responsive interaction beyond irritability and agitation while motor function is limited to involuntary responses.  Two individuals have lived into the second decade of life.

Genetics

This condition has been described in 4 individuals who were products of consanquineous Amish couples.  Homozygous mutations in the TMPRSS4 gene (11q23.3), whose product is a serine transmembrane protease, seems to be responsible.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 5

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

One or both eyes may be small, sometimes resembling clinical anophthalmia. Other ocular anomalies such as coloboma, microcornea, cataracts, and hypoplasia or agenesis of the optic nerve have been reported.

A pigmentary retinopathy has been described.  The retinal vessels are often attenuated and sometimes sparse.  The optic nerves and chiasm are frequently absent or hypoplastic as seen on the MRI.  ERG and VEP responses are inconsistent but are generally abnormal indicating photoreceptor malfunction.  

Systemic Features: 

Patients have a variety of systemic abnormalities including pituitary dysfunction, joint laxity, hypotonia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and seizures.  Hypothyroidism and deficiencies of growth hormone, gonadotropins, and cortisol are present in some patients.  Developmental delay and cognitive impairment are frequently present but mental functioning is normal in some patients.  The genitalia of males are often underdeveloped.  Patients are often short in stature.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant condition secondary to heterozygous mutations in the OTX2 gene (14q22.3).  A variety of point mutations as well as microdeletions involving the OTX2 gene have been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the syndrome but surgical and/or endocrinological treatment may be used to correct individual features.  Special education and low vision aids may be helpful in selected patients.

References
Article Title: 

Heterozygous mutations of OTX2 cause severe ocular malformations

Ragge NK, Brown AG, Poloschek CM, Lorenz B, Henderson RA, Clarke MP, Russell-Eggitt I, Fielder A, Gerrelli D, Martinez-Barbera JP, Ruddle P, Hurst J, Collin JR, Salt A, Cooper ST, Thompson PJ, Sisodiya SM, Williamson KA, Fitzpatrick DR, van Heyningen V, Hanson IM. Heterozygous mutations of OTX2 cause severe ocular malformations. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Jun;76(6):1008-22. Apr 21. Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Aug;77(2):334..

PubMed ID: 
15846561

Meckel Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular phenotype is highly variable.  The globe is often malformed or may be clinically absent.  Cryptophthalmos, clinical anophthalmia, and microphthalmos with sclerocornea and microcornea have been reported.  Posterior staphylomas, retinal dysplasia, partial aniridia, cataracts, and hypoplasia or absence of the optic nerve are sometimes seen.  Some patients have incompletely formed eyes with shallow anterior chambers, angle anomalies, and a persistent tunica vasculosa with lens opacification.  Histopathology may reveal thinning of the nerve fiber layer and a paucity of retinal ganglion cells.  The retina has been described as dysplastic with foci of rosette-like structures and abundant glial cells.

Systemic Features: 

Meckel or Meckel-Gruber syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with severe multisystem manifestations.  The triad of cystic renal disease, polydactyly (and sometimes syndactyly), and a skull malformation (usually an encephalocele) is considered characteristic of MKS.  However, these signs are variable and only about 60% of patients have all three features.  Many patients have additional signs such as malformations of the biliary tree, cleft palate (and/or lip), sloping forehead, low-set ears, short neck, low-set ears, ambiguous genitalia, and short, bowed limb bones.  Pulmonary hypoplasia is common which, together with kidney and liver disease, is responsible for the poor prognosis of most infants. 

Many clinical abnormalities resemble those present in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (270400) and in Joubert syndrome (213300).

Genetics

Most conditions in this group are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.  Mutations in 9 genes have been identified as responsible for some variant of MKS in which there is a considerable range of clinical expression.  There is significant clinical overlap with Joubert syndrome and it is not surprising that at least 5 of these mutations have been identified in both conditions.  Further nosological confusion is generated by those who consider patients with the severe, lethal phenotype to have Meckel syndrome while those with milder disease are labeled Joubert syndrome, regardless of genotype.

Rare heterozygotes have been reported with isolated features such as polydactyly.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for this syndrome.  The prognosis for life beyond infancy is poor due to the advanced dysfunction of numerous organs such as the kidney, lungs, liver and the central nervous system.

References
Article Title: 

Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Meckel syndrome

Paavola P, Salonen R, Baumer A, Schinzel A, Boyd PA, Gould S, Meusburger H, Tenconi R, Barnicoat A, Winter R, Peltonen L. Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in Meckel syndrome. Hum Genet. 1997 Nov;101(1):88-92.

PubMed ID: 
9385376

Blue Diaper Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A single patient has been reported with microcornea, optic nerve hypoplasia, and 'abnormal' eye movements.  The full ocular phenotype is unknown but 'visual problems' are sometimes mentioned in other reports.

Systemic Features: 

Nephrocalcinosis and blue urine are the major systemic manifestations of blue diaper syndrome.  Symptoms of fever, constipation, poor weight gain, failure to thrive, and irritability can also be part of the syndrome.

Genetics

This is considered an autosomal recessive disorder although an X-linked defect cannot be ruled out since reported patients have been male.  Parental consanguinity is present in some families.  Nothing is known about the mutation or its locus.  Intestinal transport of tryptophan is defective and bacterial degradation results in excessive indole production.  Oxidation in the urine to indigo blue results in the characteristic discoloration.        

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Restriction of dietary tryptophan has been suggested.

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Microphthalmia or clinical anophthalmia is the major ocular malformation in this disorder but optic nerve hypoplasia or even aplasia may also be present.  Colobomas and congenital cataracts may be seen.

Systemic Features: 

Esophageal atresia and sometimes tracheoesophageal fistula sometimes coexist. The ears can be low-set and malformed and sensorineural hearing loss is often present.  Facial palsy has been reported.  The penis may be small and combined with cryptorchidism while physical growth retardation is common.  Other less common malformations include cleft palate, vertebral anomalies, cardiac anomalies, body asymmetry, and microcephaly.  A few patients have had radiologically evident CNS malformations such as dilated ventricles, hippocampal hypoplasia, abnormal white matter, and holoprosencephaly.  However, intellectual development and function have been normal in other patients.

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder secondary to heterozygous mutations in the SOX2 gene (3q26.33).  Chromosomal aberrations involving this region of chromosome 3 have also been found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Depending upon the severity of malformations, life expectancy can be normal but some patients have died in the neonatal period.  Certain defects such as those of the heart, palate and esophagus can be surgically repaired.  Hearing device can be helpful but no treatment is available for the eyeball malformations.

References
Article Title: 

Microphthalmia, Syndromic 9

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Both microphthalmia and clinical anophthalmia have been described in this syndrome.  However, autopsy has shown true anophthalmia in a few cases who were stillborn or died in the neonatal period.  At least one eye can be cystic. The optic nerves are often hypoplastic and may be absent.  High, upward-arching eyebrows may be seen.

Systemic Features: 

An early manifestation of this disorder is neonatal pulmonary distress.  The lungs are usually hypoplastic or malformed. Cardiac malformations such as patent ductus arteriosus, septal and valvular defects, tetralogy of Fallot, and single ventricles are often present.  Diaphragmatic hernias or defects are common but hiatal hernias and frank eventration of abdominal contents have also been reported.  Renal anomalies and intrauterine growth retardation have been noted.         

Some infants have micrognathia, low-set ears, a broad nasal bridge, brachycephaly, and midline clefts of the palate.  Cerebral malformations are seldom present.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the STRA6 gene (15q24.1) have been found in a few cases which suggests autosomal recessive inheritance.  Parental consanguinity has been reported in some families.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at the repair of the organ defects in selected cases that have survival potential.   Survival rates are poor but those less severely affected may live for a decade.

References
Article Title: 

The PDAC syndrome (pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, and cardiac defect) (Spear syndrome, Matthew-Wood syndrome): report of eight cases including a living child and further evidence for autosomal

Chitayat D, Sroka H, Keating S, Colby RS, Ryan G, Toi A, Blaser S, Viero S, Devisme L, Boute-B?(c)n?(c)jean O, Manouvrier-Hanu S, Mortier G, Loeys B, Rauch A, Bitoun P. The PDAC syndrome (pulmonary hypoplasia/agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia/eventration, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, and cardiac defect) (Spear syndrome, Matthew-Wood syndrome): report of eight cases including a living child and further evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Jun 15;143A(12):1268-81.

PubMed ID: 
17506106

Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation

Pasutto F, Sticht H, Hammersen G, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Fitzpatrick DR, N?ornberg G, Brasch F, Schirmer-Zimmermann H, Tolmie JL, Chitayat D, Houge G, Fern?degndez-Mart??nez L, Keating S, Mortier G, Hennekam RC, von der Wense A, Slavotinek A, Meinecke P, Bitoun P, Becker C, N?ornberg P, Reis A, Rauch A. Mutations in STRA6 cause a broad spectrum of malformations including anophthalmia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, alveolar capillary dysplasia, lung hypoplasia, and mental retardation. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Mar;80(3):550-60.

PubMed ID: 
17273977

Septooptic Dysplasia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic nerve hypoplasia is most characteristic ocular feature of this syndrome.  It may be bilateral but often is unilateral.  The hypoplastic nerve head can have a ‘double margin’.  The outer ring consists of the junction of the sclera with the lamina cribrosa while the inner margin is darker and represents the junction of the RPE with the abnormally small nerve containing less than the normal number of axons.  Visual acuity depends upon the degree of nerve hypoplasia.  Nystagmus and strabismus may be present. 

Systemic Features: 

Midline brain defects are common.  This usually consists of an absent septum pellucidum but sometimes absence or thinning of the corpus callosum as well.  An ‘empty sella’ with a dysplastic pituitary gland and deficiencies in hormone output can be present.  Hypoglycemia, hypogonadism, short stature and corticotrophin deficiency may result.  There is considerable clinical heterogeneity and few patients have all of these features.  Only 29% of patients have the full spectrum of brain, optic nerve, and pituitary abnormalities.  It has been proposed that the severity of the brain midline defects can be correlated with the degree of endocrinopathy.  Mental retardation and features of autism spectrum disorders may be present.

A few patients have been reported with skeletal deformities such as syndactyly and hypoplastic digits.  Rare males have underdeveloped genitalia. 

Genetics

The majority of cases occur sporadically.  Among rare cases with a family history, homozygosity of a mutation in the HESX1 gene (3p21.2-p21.1) has been found suggesting an autosomal recessive etiology.  It seems likely that there remains considerable genetic heterogeneity and it is doubtful that septooptic dysplasia is a unique disorder.  

Bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (165550) also occurs without the CNS malformations but it results from a different mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

All patients with optic nerve hypoplasia should be evaluated for midline brain anomalies and endocrinopathy.  There is no treatment for the optic nerve hypoplasia but low vision aids could be helpful in selected cases with bilateral nerve dysplasia.  The hormonal deficiencies, of course, need to be corrected with appropriate replacements. 

References
Article Title: 

Endocrine status in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia: relationship to midline central nervous system abnormalities and appearance of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis on magnetic resonance imaging

Birkebaek NH, Patel L, Wright NB, Grigg JR, Sinha S, Hall CM, Price DA, Lloyd IC, Clayton PE. Endocrine status in patients with optic nerve hypoplasia: relationship to midline central nervous system abnormalities and appearance of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis on magnetic resonance imaging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5281-6.

PubMed ID: 
14602752

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