low-set ears

Schurrs-Hoeijmakers Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Mild structural variants are common among the periocular structures.  There is marked hypertelorism in many individuals, the eyebrows are full and highly arched, the eyelashes are long, and the lid fissures slant downward.  Ptosis is often evident.  Myopia, nystagmus, and strabismus are frequently noted.  Colobomas have been reported.

Systemic Features: 

There is general psychomotor delay in development.  Intellectual disability (with IQs in the 50s) and hypotonia are common.  Speech is poor and sometimes absent.   Behavioral anomalies such as aggression and features of autism have been reported.  The anterior hairline is low, the mouth is wide with downturned corners, the nose is bulbous, the ears are large and low-set, and the teeth are often widely-spaced.  Cryptorchidism is common among males.

Renal and cardiac defects are common.  Brain MRIs often show cerebellar hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, and nonspecific white matter changes.

Genetics

No treatment for the general disorder has been published.  Physical and speech therapy might be helpful

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been published.  Physical and speech therapy might be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients

Schuurs-Hoeijmakers JH, Landsverk ML, Foulds N, Kukolich MK, Gavrilova RH, Greville-Heygate S, Hanson-Kahn A, Bernstein JA, Glass J, Chitayat D, Burrow TA, Husami A, Collins K, Wusik K, van der Aa N, Kooy F, Brown KT, Gadzicki D, Kini U, Alvarez S, Fernandez-Jaen A, McGehee F, Selby K, Tarailo-Graovac M, Van Allen M, van Karnebeek CD, Stavropoulos DJ, Marshall CR, Merico D, Gregor A, Zweier C, Hopkin RJ, Chu YW, Chung BH, de Vries BB, Devriendt K, Hurles ME, Brunner HG; DDD study. Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Mar;170(3):670-5.

PubMed ID: 
26842493

Hypotonia, Infantile, with Psychomotor Retardation And Characteristic Facies 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Anomalies of periocular structures are part of the characteristic facial morphology.  The lid fissures slant downward and epicanthal folds are with ptosis are generally present.  Strabismus and nystagmus are characteristic features.

Systemic Features: 

This is a severe congenital neurodevelopmental disorder with global delay, hypotonia, and characteristic facies.  It is usually present at birth and soon manifest as a profound intellectual delay.  Most patients do not develop speech or independent motor skills.  Feeding difficulties are evident early and often require gastric tube placement for nutrition.  Failure to thrive is common.   Most patients have seizures of a tonic-clonic or atonic type which may be controlled with medication. 

Microcephaly, brachycephaly, plagiocephaly, and brachycephaly have been described.  A high forehead with frontal bossing, facial hypotonia, triangular facies have been described.  The ears are low-set and posteriorly rotated.  The upper lip is often thin and the mouth is commonly open.  The neck appears short, the nose is bulbous while the nasal bridge is prominent and the nares may be anteverted.

Brain imaging is normal in some patients but there is evidence of generalized cerebral atrophy, with a thin corpus callosum and decreased myelination in others.  Variable features include scoliosis, hip contractures, muscle wasting, and dyskinesias are sometimes seen.

Genetics

This disorder is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the UNC80 gene (2q34).  

For somewhat similar disorders see IHPRF1 (615419) and IHPRF3 (616900).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability

Stray-Pedersen A, Cobben JM, Prescott TE, Lee S, Cang C, Aranda K, Ahmed S, Alders M, Gerstner T, Aslaksen K, Tetreault M, Qin W, Hartley T, Jhangiani SN, Muzny DM, Tarailo-Graovac M, van Karnebeek CD; Care4Rare Canada Consortium; Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, Lupski JR, Ren D, Yoon G. Biallelic Mutations in UNC80 Cause Persistent Hypotonia, Encephalopathy, Growth Retardation, and Severe Intellectual Disability. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Jan 7;98(1):202-9.

PubMed ID: 
26708751

UNC80 mutation causes a syndrome of hypotonia, severe intellectual disability, dyskinesia and dysmorphism, similar to that caused by mutations in its interacting cation channel NALCN

Perez Y, Kadir R, Volodarsky M, Noyman I, Flusser H, Shorer Z, Gradstein L, Birnbaum RY, Birk OS. UNC80 mutation causes a syndrome of hypotonia, severe intellectual disability, dyskinesia and dysmorphism, similar to that caused by mutations in its interacting cation channel NALCN. J Med Genet. 2016 Jun;53(6):397-402.

PubMed ID: 
26545877

Sweeney-Cox Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

 Periorbital and facial anomalies were present in the two reported patients.  Pseudoproptosis (considered secondary to deficiency of the bony orbits) accentuated by midface hypoplasia, and upper lid colobomas have been observed.  The globes were described as "small" although there were no "concerns" regarding vision in the single male patient.  Electrodiagnostic tests were "normal."    

Systemic Features: 

Multiple anomalies and malformations were present in the two reported patients, an unrelated male and female.  Severe facial dysmorphism secondary to uneven skull bone formation and suture closures is present.  The metopic ridge is prominent, the orbital bones are deficient, the occiput is flattened, the anterior fontanel and coronal sutures are wide.  Midfacial hypoplasia is present.  The neck is broad and the shoulders are narrow.  The fingers are long and the distal phalanges may be fixed in flexion.  The ears are low-set, small, and cupped.  The palate is high and may be cleft.  Cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers has been observed.  Variable developmental delays/learning difficulties are present.

The male had an imperforate anus, undescended testes and a 60 dB hearing loss.  The female had a midline cleft palate with choanal atresia requiring a tracheostomy from birth and required fundoplication and gastrostomy for gastroesophageal reflux.

Genetics

Heterozygous missense mutations in the TWIST1 gene (7p21.1) were found in both reported individuals.  These appear to have arisen de novo.

Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400) in which some of the same skeletal features are found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition but individual malformations may require attention.  The lid colobomas were repaired in the female but corneal exposure remained and corneal scarring and phthisis developed in the right eye.  The left eye retained some vision ("able to see large objects").

References
Article Title: 

Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans

Kim S, Twigg SRF, Scanlon VA, Chandra A, Hansen TJ, Alsubait A, Fenwick AL, McGowan SJ, Lord H, Lester T, Sweeney E, Weber A, Cox H, Wilkie AOM, Golden A, Corsi AK. Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 1;26(11):2118-2132.

PubMed ID: 
28369379

Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis

Miller KA, Twigg SR, McGowan SJ, Phipps JM, Fenwick AL, Johnson D, Wall SA, Noons P, Rees KE, Tidey EA, Craft J, Taylor J, Taylor JC, Goos JA, Swagemakers SM, Mathijssen IM, van der Spek PJ, Lord H, Lester T, Abid N, Cilliers D, Hurst JA, Morton JE, Sweeney E, Weber A, Wilson LC, Wilkie AO. Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis. J Med Genet. 2017 Apr;54(4):260-268.

PubMed ID: 
27884935

Sweeney-Cox Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ophthalmologic examinations have not been reported.  However, periorbital and facial anomalies were present in the two reported patients.  Pseudoproptosis (considered secondary to deficiency of the bony orbits) accentuated by midface hypoplasia, and upper lid colobomas have been observed.  The globes were described as "small" although there were no "concerns" regarding vision in the single male patient.  Electrodiagnostic tests were "normal."    

Systemic Features: 

Multiple anomalies and malformations were present in the two reported patients, an unrelated male and female.  Severe facial dysmorphism secondary to uneven skull bone formation and suture closures is present.  The metopic ridge is prominent, the orbital bones are deficient, the occiput is flattened, the anterior fontanel and coronal sutures are wide.  Midfacial hypoplasia is present.  The neck is broad and the shoulders are narrow.  The fingers are long and the distal phalanges may be fixed in flexion.  The ears are low-set, small, and cupped.  The palate is high and may be cleft.  Cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers has been observed.  Variable developmental delays/learning difficulties are present.

The male had an imperforate anus, undescended testes and a 60 dB hearing loss.  The female had a midline cleft palate with choanal atresia requiring a tracheostomy from birth and required fundoplication and gastrostomy for gastroesophageal reflux.  

Genetics

Heterozygous missense mutations in the TWIST1 gene (7p21.1) were found in both reported individuals.  These appear to have arisen de novo.

Mutations in the same gene have also been found in the Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400) in which some of the same skeletal features are found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition but individual malformations may require attention.  The lid colobomas were repaired in the female but corneal exposure remained and corneal scarring and phthisis developed in the right eye.  The left eye retained some vision ("able to see large objects").

References
Article Title: 

Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans

Kim S, Twigg SRF, Scanlon VA, Chandra A, Hansen TJ, Alsubait A, Fenwick AL, McGowan SJ, Lord H, Lester T, Sweeney E, Weber A, Cox H, Wilkie AOM, Golden A, Corsi AK. Localized TWIST1 and TWIST2 basic domain substitutions cause four distinct human diseases that can be modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 1;26(11):2118-2132.

PubMed ID: 
28369379

Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis

Miller KA, Twigg SR, McGowan SJ, Phipps JM, Fenwick AL, Johnson D, Wall SA, Noons P, Rees KE, Tidey EA, Craft J, Taylor J, Taylor JC, Goos JA, Swagemakers SM, Mathijssen IM, van der Spek PJ, Lord H, Lester T, Abid N, Cilliers D, Hurst JA, Morton JE, Sweeney E, Weber A, Wilson LC, Wilkie AO. Diagnostic value of exome and whole genome sequencing in craniosynostosis. J Med Genet. 2017 Apr;54(4):260-268.

PubMed ID: 
27884935

Al Kaissi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reported facial dysmorphism features include periocular anomalies of ptosis, hypertelorism, down-slanting lid fissures, and epicanthal folds.  

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is somewhat variable.  Intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation with hypotonia are common.   Moderate to severe intellectual disability is usually present and speech may be severely delayed.  The forehead is narrow, the nasal tip is broad, the nasal bridge is depressed, and the ears are low-set and posteriorly rotated.   Small hands and sometimes joint laxity are commonly present.  Cervical spine abnormalities including clefting, improper fusion, and segmentation anomalies are common.

Brain MRI may be normal but a small corpus callosum was present in some patients.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the CDK10 gene (16q24.3) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays

Windpassinger C, Piard J, Bonnard C, Alfadhel M, Lim S, Bisteau X, Blouin S, Ali NB, Ng AYJ, Lu H, Tohari S, Talib SZA, van Hul N, Caldez MJ, Van Maldergem L, Yigit G, Kayserili H, Youssef SA, Coppola V, de Bruin A, Tessarollo L, Choi H, Rupp V, Roetzer K, Roschger P, Klaushofer K, Altmuller J, Roy S, Venkatesh B, Ganger R, Grill F, Ben Chehida F, Wollnik B, Altunoglu U, Al Kaissi A, Reversade B, Kaldis P. CDK10 Mutations in Humans and Mice Cause Severe Growth Retardation, Spine Malformations, and Developmental Delays. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Sep 7;101(3):391-403.

PubMed ID: 
28886341

Fraser Syndrome 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cryptophthalmos is always present.  The anterior chamber was described as 'abnormal' in several stillborn male fetuses.

Systemic Features: 

Low-set simple ears were noted in two stillborn fetuses.  Micrognathia and a broad and beaked nose with notched alae nasi were described together with a malformed and atretic larynx.  The fingers and toes may be short and cutaneous syndactyly may be present.  The position of the anus may be abnormal.  The lungs may have abnormal lobulation and appear hyperplastic and hyperechogenic.  The bladder and kidneys may be absent.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the GRIP1 gene (12q14.3) have been identified in this autosomal recessive condition.

Fraser syndrome 1 (219000) results from homozygous mutations in the FRAS1 gene.

Fraser syndrome 2 (617666) is caused by homozygous mutations in the FREM2 gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in GRIP1 cause Fraser syndrome

Vogel MJ, van Zon P, Brueton L, Gijzen M, van Tuil MC, Cox P, Schanze D, Kariminejad A, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Blair E, Zenker M, Scambler PJ, Ploos van Amstel HK, van Haelst MM. Mutations in GRIP1 cause Fraser syndrome. J Med Genet. 2012 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
22510445

Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Progressive Microcephaly, Spasticity, and Brain Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

 Examined patients have optic atrophy with nystagmus and roving eye movements.

Systemic Features: 

There are extensive and, in most cases, progressive CNS abnormalities resulting in severe neurodevelopmental deficits.  Infants at birth have progressive truncal hypotonia and limb spasticity.  Motor deficits result in little spontaneous movement, resulting in poor sucking, and respiratory difficulties.  Language does not develop and there is profound mental retardation. Progressive microcephaly is a characteristic finding.  There are often extrapyramidal signs such as rigidity and dystonic posturing.

Dysmorphic features include a short nose, high-arched palate, low-set and posteriorly rotated ears, micrognathia, postaxial polydactyly, hirsutism, pectus carinatum, contractures of large joints, and hyperextensibility of small joints.

Brain imaging shows a progressive leukoencephalopathy, cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination.  The corpus callosum is often thin and the ventricles appear enlarged.  The lifespan is generally short with death occurring in infancy or early childhood.

Genetics

This autosomal recessive disorder results from homozygous mutations in the PLAA gene (9p21). 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

PLAA Mutations Cause a Lethal Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy by Disrupting Ubiquitin-Mediated Endolysosomal Degradation of Synaptic Proteins

Hall EA, Nahorski MS, Murray LM, Shaheen R, Perkins E, Dissanayake KN, Kristaryanto Y, Jones RA, Vogt J, Rivagorda M, Handley MT, Mali GR, Quidwai T, Soares DC, Keighren MA, McKie L, Mort RL, Gammoh N, Garcia-Munoz A, Davey T, Vermeren M, Walsh D, Budd P, Aligianis IA, Faqeih E, Quigley AJ, Jackson IJ, Kulathu Y, Jackson M, Ribchester RR, von Kriegsheim A, Alkuraya FS, Woods CG, Maher ER, Mill P. PLAA Mutations Cause a Lethal Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy by Disrupting Ubiquitin-Mediated Endolysosomal Degradation of Synaptic Proteins. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 May 4;100(5):706-724.

PubMed ID: 
28413018

Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy

Falik Zaccai TC, Savitzki D, Zivony-Elboum Y, Vilboux T, Fitts EC, Shoval Y, Kalfon L, Samra N, Keren Z, Gross B, Chasnyk N, Straussberg R, Mullikin JC, Teer JK, Geiger D, Kornitzer D, Bitterman-Deutsch O, Samson AO, Wakamiya M, Peterson JW, Kirtley ML, Pinchuk IV, Baze WB, Gahl WA, Kleta R, Anikster Y, Chopra AK. Phospholipase A2-activating protein is associated with a novel form of leukoencephalopathy. Brain. 2017 Feb;140(Pt 2):370-386.

PubMed ID: 
28007986

Ayme-Gripp Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most patients have congenital cataracts which may be mild and "oil drop" in appearance.  The eyes appear far apart, the eyebrows are broad, and the palpebral fissures may slant upward or downward.  Ptosis has been reported.  Aphakic glaucoma has been reported in one juvenile who had unilateral cataract surgery at 5 months of age.

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is heterogeneous and not all patients have all features.  The facial features are said to resemble those of the Down syndrome with brachycephaly, a high forehead, and a flat midface with shallow orbits and malar hypoplasia.  The ears are small, low-set, and posteriorly rotated.  The nose is short and the nasal bridge is broad and flat.  The mouth is small and the upper lip is thin.  The scalp hair may be sparse and the nails sometimes appear dystrophic.

The fingers are sometimes brachydactylous and tapered.  Short stature is common and the joints may have limited motion.  Dislocation of the radial heads is seen rarely while radioulnar synostosis has been seen in a few individuals.  Postnatal short stature is common.

Seizures often occur.  The ventricles appear large and cerebral atrophy has been reported.  Intellectual disability and mental retardation are common. However, at least one individual attended university although he had been diagnosed in childhood with Asberger disease.   Neurosensory hearing loss is common.

Genetics

This autosomal dominant condition results from heterozygous mutations in the MAF (16q32.2) gene.  At least one mother/son transmission event has been reported.

Many of the same features are seen in what has been called the Fine-Lubinsky syndrome (601353) but without mutations in the MAF gene.  It may not be a unique disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported but specific anomalies such as cataracts should be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies

Niceta M, Stellacci E, Gripp KW, Zampino G, Kousi M, Anselmi M, Traversa A, Ciolfi A, Stabley D, Bruselles A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Prudente S, Fiorenza MT, Boitani C, Philip N, Niyazov D, Leoni C, Nakane T, Keppler-Noreuil K, Braddock SR, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Palleschi A, Campeau PM, Lee BH, Pouponnot C, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Katsanis N, Sol-Church K, Tartaglia M. Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 7;96(5):816-25.

PubMed ID: 
25865493

Retinitis Pigmentosa With or Without Skeletal Anomalies

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Downward slanting lid fissures may be detectable at birth as part of the general craniofacial dysmorphism.  Some degree of night blindness causes symptoms by the second decade of life and constricted visual fields with pigmented retinopathy and vessel narrowing can be detected.  The ERG shows reduced or absent responses.  The retinal phenotype is progressive.   

Systemic Features: 

Most but not all patients have skeletal anomalies.  Nonspecific craniofacial dysmorphology features are frequently present including frontal bossing, macrocephaly, low-set ears, large columella, hypoplastic nares, and malar hypoplasia.  A short neck, brachydactyly, and overall shortness of stature are often present.  Some individuals have nail dysplasia.  The proximal femoral metaphyses sometimes show chondrodysplasia.

There is often some degree of intellectual disability and there may be delays in speech, feeding, and walking.

Genetics

This disorder results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the CWC27 gene (5q12.3).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported.  Low vision aids and night vision devices may be helpful, especially for educational activities.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies

Xu M, Xie YA, Abouzeid H, Gordon CT, Fiorentino A, Sun Z, Lehman A, Osman IS, Dharmat R, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Bapst-Wicht L, Babino D, Arno G, Busetto V, Zhao L, Li H, Lopez-Martinez MA, Azevedo LF, Hubert L, Pontikos N, Eblimit A, Lorda-Sanchez I, Kheir V, Plagnol V, Oufadem M, Soens ZT, Yang L, Bole-Feysot C, Pfundt R, Allaman-Pillet N, Nitschke P, Cheetham ME, Lyonnet S, Agrawal SA, Li H, Pinton G, Michaelides M, Besmond C, Li Y, Yuan Z, von Lintig J, Webster AR, Le Hir H, Stoilov P; UK Inherited Retinal Dystrophy Consortium., Amiel J, Hardcastle AJ, Ayuso C, Sui R, Chen R, Allikmets R, Schorderet DF. Mutations in the Spliceosome Component CWC27 Cause Retinal Degeneration with or without Additional Developmental Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Apr 6;100(4):592-604.

PubMed ID: 
28285769

ZTTK Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The eyes are deep-set and the palpebral fissures slant downward.  Optic atrophy is often present.  The majority of individuals have poor visual responses which may also be attributed to central or cortical impairment.  Strabismus and nystagmus are frequently present.

Systemic Features: 

ZTTK syndrome is multisystem malformation and developmental disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation.  The facial features might suggest the diagnosis at birth but most of the signs are nonspecific including frontal bossing, underdevelopment of the midface, facial asymmetry, low-set ears, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, and a short philtrum.  Poor feeding and hypotonia in the neonatal period are usually present and physical growth is subnormal resulting in short stature.

Brain imaging may show abnormal gyral patterns, ventriculomegaly, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, arachnoid cysts, and loss of periventricular white matter.  About half of patients develop seizures and many have intellectual disabilities.  Spinal anomalies include hemivertebrae with scoliosis and/or kyphosis.  Other skeletal features include joint laxity in some patients and contractures in others.  Arachnodactyly, craniosynostosis, and rib anomalies have been reported.  There may be malformations in the GI, GU, and cardiac systems while immune and coagulation abnormalities have also been reported.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the SON gene (21q22.11) have been identified in patients with this condition.  They may cause truncation of the gene product with haploinsufficiency or, in other patients, a frameshift in the reading.  The SON gene is a master RNA splicing regulator that impacts neurodevelopment.

Virtually all cases are the result of de novo mutations.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported.  Physical therapy and assistive devices may be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive

Tokita MJ, Braxton AA, Shao Y, Lewis AM, Vincent M, Kury S, Besnard T, Isidor B, Latypova X, Bezieau S, Liu P, Motter CS, Melver CW, Robin NH, Infante EM, McGuire M, El-Gharbawy A, Littlejohn RO, McLean SD, Bi W, Bacino CA, Lalani SR, Scott DA, Eng CM, Yang Y, Schaaf CP, Walkiewicz MA. De Novo Truncating Variants in SON Cause Intellectual Disability, Congenital Malformations, and Failure to Thrive. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):720-7.

PubMed ID: 
27545676

De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome

Kim JH, Shinde DN, Reijnders MR, Hauser NS, Belmonte RL, Wilson GR, Bosch DG, Bubulya PA, Shashi V, Petrovski S, Stone JK, Park EY, Veltman JA, Sinnema M, Stumpel CT, Draaisma JM, Nicolai J; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Yntema HG, Lindstrom K, de Vries BB, Jewett T, Santoro SL, Vogt J; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, Bachman KK, Seeley AH, Krokosky A, Turner C, Rohena L, Hempel M, Kortum F, Lessel D, Neu A, Strom TM, Wieczorek D, Bramswig N, Laccone FA, Behunova J, Rehder H, Gordon CT, Rio M, Romana S, Tang S, El-Khechen D, Cho MT, McWalter K, Douglas G, Baskin B, Begtrup A, Funari T, Schoch K, Stegmann AP, Stevens SJ, Zhang DE, Traver D, Yao X, MacArthur DG, Brunner HG, Mancini GM, Myers RM, Owen LB, Lim ST, Stachura DL, Vissers LE, Ahn EY. De Novo Mutations in SON Disrupt RNA Splicing of Genes Essential for Brain Development and Metabolism, Causing an Intellectual-Disability Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):711-9.

PubMed ID: 
27545680

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