long eyelashes

Trichomegaly Plus Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

Eyelashes are described as ‘long’, and the eyebrows are bushy.  The majority of individuals have poor vision secondary to severe receptor dysfunction.  Night blindness and severe photophobia are features in some cases.  Both retinal and choroidal atrophy have been reported and most patients have a progressive and extensive pigmentary retinopathy.

Systemic Features

Scalp alopecia and sparse body hair is common in spite of the trichomegaly of the eyebrows and eyelashes.  Frontal bossing has been noted in some patients.  Pituitary dysfunction is suggested by low growth hormone levels, features of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and possibly hypothyroidism.

Some deficit of cognitive function is usually present and a few patients have been described as mentally retarded.  There is evidence of progressive neurological damage both centrally and peripherally. Developmental milestones are often achieved late and some individuals have been observed to regress during the first decade of life.  The peripheral neuropathy includes both sensory and motor components.  Sensory nerve action potentials may be lost in the first decade while early motor functions may regress during the same period.  Several patients have had evidence of progressive cerebellar ataxia.

Genetics

No locus or mutation has been found in this rare condition.  Autosomal recessive inheritance has been proposed on the basis of a single family in which an affected brother and sister were born to first cousin parents.   

The relationship of this disorder to that found in two cousins, offspring of consanguineous matings, described as ‘cone-rod congenital amaurosis associated with congenital hypertrichosis: an autosomal recessive condition’ (204110 ) is unknown.  They were described as having visual impairment from birth and profound photophobia.  Fundus changes were minimal with a bull’s eye pattern of pigment changes in the macula described as indicative of a rod-cone congenital amaurosis.  ERG responses were unrecordable.  These individuals apparently did not have other somatic, psychomotor or neurologic deficits.

Treatment Options

No treatment is available for this condition although growth hormone and testosterone supplementation have been reported to have the appropriate selective effects.

References

Sonmez S, Forsyth RJ, Matthews DS, Clarke M, Splitt M. Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (chorioretinopathy-pituitary dysfunction) with prominent early pituitary dysfunction: differentiation from choroideremia-hypopituitarism. Clin Dysmorphol. 2008 Oct;17(4):265-7.

PubMed ID: 
18978655

Haimi M, Gershoni-Baruch R. Autosomal recessive Oliver-McFarlane syndrome: retinitis pigmentosa, short stature (GH deficiency), trichomegaly, and hair anomalies or CPD syndrome (chorioretinopathy-pituitary dysfunction). Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Oct 15;138A(3):268-71.

PubMed ID: 
16155639

Jalili IK. Cone-rod congenital amaurosis associated with congenital hypertrichosis: an autosomal recessive condition. J Med Genet. 1989 Aug;26(8):504-10.

PubMed ID: 
2769722

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics

Ocular Features

There is considerable clinical heterogeneity in this disorder.  Few patients have all of the clinical features and there is much variation in the severity of these.  Almost all segments of the eye can be involved.  The lashes are often lush and the eyebrows may be highly arched and bushy.  Lid fissures are often downward slanting (88%).  Congenital glaucoma, nystagmus, cataracts, lacrimal duct obstruction (37%), ptosis (29%), colobomas and numerous corneal abnormalities including keratoglobus, sclerocornea, and megalocornea have been reported.  Abnormal VEP waveforms and cone and cone-rod dysfunction have been found in the majority (78%) of patients tested.  Retinal pigmentary changes have been seen in some patients.  Refractive errors (usually myopia) occur in 56% of patients.  Visual acuities vary widely but about 20% of patients are visually handicapped.

Fluorescein angiography in a single patient revealed generalized vascular attenuation and extensive peripheral avascularity.  The AV transit time was prolonged with delayed venous filling and late small vessel leakage. 

Systemic Features

The facial features are reported to be characteristic but there are few distinctive signs.  The face is often broad and round, the nose is beaked, the mouth is small, and the lower lip appears to pout and protrudes beyond a short upper lip.  Smiles have been described as ‘grimacing’.  It is common for the columella to protrude beyond the alae nasi.  The palate is narrow and highly arched and the laryngeal walls collapse easily which may lead to feeding problems and respiratory difficulties.  The ears may be rotated posteriorly.  The anterior hairline can appear low.

Among the more distinctive signs are the broad thumbs and great toes which are often deviated medially.  However, the distal phalanges of all fingers may be broad as well.  Bone fractures are common and patellar dislocations can be present as seen in the first two decades of life.  Hypotonia is a feature.  Numerous dental anomalies have been reported including crowded teeth, enamel hypoplasia, crossbite, and abnormal numbers of teeth.

Developmental delays are common.  Infancy and childhood milestones are often delayed.  Many patients have cognitive delays and some are mildly retarded.  Postnatal growth is subnormal and obesity is common.  A third of patients have a cardiac abnormality including septal defects, valvular defects, coarctation of the aorta, pulmonic stenosis, and patent ductus arteriosus.  Renal abnormalities occur frequently and almost all males have undescended testes.  Patients are at increased risk of tumors, both malignant and benign, many of which occur in the central nervous system.  Other problems are constipation and hearing loss.

Genetics

Evidence points to an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance secondary to mutations in CREBBP (16p13.3) but there is some genetic heterogeneity as mutations in EP300 (22q13) have also been associated with this disease.

Treatment Options

Treatment is directed at specific clinical features such as glaucoma and strabismus.  Special education and vocational training may be helpful.  Hearing loss may respond to standard treatment.  Fractures and dislocations should receive prompt attention.  Cardiac anomalies may require surgical correction.

References

Jacobs DJ, Sein J, Berrocal AM, Grajewski AL, Hodapp E. Fluorescein angiography findings in a case of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:1369-71.

PubMed ID: 
22942640

van Genderen MM, Kinds GF, Riemslag FC, Hennekam RC. Ocular features in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: investigation of 24 patients and review of the literature. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000 Oct;84(10):1177-84. Review.

PubMed ID: 
11004107

Quaranta L, Quaranta CA. Congenital glaucoma associated with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1998 Feb;76(1):112-3.

PubMed ID: 
9541447

Brei TJ, Burke MJ, Rubinstein JH. Glaucoma and findings simulating glaucoma in the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1995 Jul-Aug;32(4):248-52. Review.

PubMed ID: 
7494163