long eyelashes

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Highly-arched and bushy eyebrows are often seen.  The lashes are long and bushy and lid fissures tend to slope downward.

The ocular phenotype has not been fully described no doubt due to the rarity of cases.  Individuals with type 1 (RSTS1) have been described with congenital glaucoma, nystagmus, corneal abnormalities of shape (such as keratoglobus, sclerocornea, megalocornea), pigmentary retinopathy, and VEP evidence of rod and cone dysfunction have been described.

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype of RSTS2 is more variable than the somewhat similar to RSTS1.  Less than 10% of individuals with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome have type 2 while over 50% have type 1.  The facial dysmorphism nay be less severe in RSTS2.

Mild to moderate intellectual disability with psychosocial problems such as autism is nearly universal.  Microcephaly, a broad nasal bridge, a beaked nose, high-arched palate and some degree of micrognathia are characteristic.  The lower lip often appears 'pouty' and protrudes beyond the upper lip while the hard palate is highly arched.  Pregnancy may be complicated by pre-eclampsia and growth restriction.  Swallowing and feeding issues are common.  Syndactyly is often present and there is considerable variability in the size of the toes and thumbs.  Some patients with RSTS2 do not have evidence of the classic broad thumbs and toes characteristic of RSTS1.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in EP300 (22q13.2) have been found in this condition.  Virtually all cases occur de novo.  Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 1 (180849) is a phenotypically similar disorder resulting from a different mutation (CREBBP).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for this condition.

References
Article Title: 

Corpus Callosum Agenesis with Facial Anomalies and Cerebellar Ataxia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The thick, bushy eyebrows and long eyelashes are part of the generalized hirsutism.  The eyelids appear puffy.  Strabismus of unknown type has been reported.

Systemic Features: 

Infants are hypertonic at birth but this seems to be less evident as they grow.  Slow physical growth and psychomotor delay are common.  The skull in newborns is small.  The ears are low-set, protruding, and posteriorly rotated.  The nostrils are anteverted and the lower lip protrudes.  There are severe cognitive defects which has been called mental retardation.  Speech is poor or may never develop.  Cerebellar ataxia and uncoordinated hand movements are features.  Brain imaging reveals cerebellar hypoplasia and some degree of corpus callosum agenesis including absence.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the FRMD4A gene (10p13) have been found to segregate with this disorder in a large consanguineous Bedouin kindred.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Kabuki Syndrome 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The facial features are characteristic primarily because of the appearance of the periocular features.  The eyebrows are highly arched and sparse.  The lid fissures are long with eversion of the lateral portion of the lower eyelid.  The eyelashes are bushy.  Nystagmus and strabismus have been reported.

Systemic Features: 

Only a small number of individuals with Kabuki syndrome 2 have been reported and the phenotype is incompletely described.  Most of the features in type 2 are similar to those in type 1 with defects in multiple organs.  There are often cardiac malformations including septal defects.  Otitis media and hearing loss are common.  The pinnae are large and cupped.  A highly arched or cleft palate may be present and the teeth are usually small.  The joints are highly mobile and general hypotonia is often present. The fifth finger is often short and clinodactylous.  Persistent fetal fingerpads are common.  The amount of intellectual disability varies considerably with some patients functioning normally.  Urogenital anomalies are less common than found in Kabuki syndrome 1 and anal malformations do not seem to be a feature.

Genetics

Kabuki syndrome 2 is an X-linked disorder, usually as the result of a mutation in the KDM6A gene (Xp11.3).   Patients with the X-linked form of Kabuki represent about 5-10% of cases.   

Kabuki syndrome 1 (147920) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous mutations in the KMT2D gene but remaining heterogeneity is suggested by the fact that a substantial proportion (30%) of individuals with Kabuki syndrome features has neither of these mutations.

In a 3 generation family two males had the typical Kabuki phenotype whereas their mother and grandmother (all had the KMT2D mutation) had various attenuated features.

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Management guidelines are available (Management of Kabuki Syndrome).

References
Article Title: 

Molecular analysis, pathogenic mechanisms, and readthrough therapy on a large cohort of Kabuki syndrome patients

Micale L, Augello B, Maffeo C, Selicorni A, Zucchetti F, Fusco C, De Nittis P, Pellico MT, Mandriani B, Fischetto R, Boccone L, Silengo M, Biamino E, Perria C, Sotgiu S, Serra G, Lapi E, Neri M, Ferlini A, Cavaliere ML, Chiurazzi P, Monica MD, Scarano G, Faravelli F, Ferrari P, Mazzanti L, Pilotta A, Patricelli MG, Bedeschi MF, Benedicenti F, Prontera P, Toschi B, Salviati L, Melis D, Di Battista E, Vancini A, Garavelli L, Zelante L, Merla G. Molecular analysis, pathogenic mechanisms, and readthrough therapy on a large cohort of Kabuki syndrome patients. Hum Mutat. 2014 Jul;35(7):841-50.

PubMed ID: 
24633898

Filippi Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular features have not been fully described.  The most consistent features are long eyelashes, thick or bushy eyebrows, and ‘visual disturbance’.  Most individuals have a facial dysmorphism which includes a broad nasal base suggestive of hypertelorism.  Optic atrophy and proptosis have been noted. 

Systemic Features: 

Intrauterine growth retardation is sometimes seen.  Microcephaly, short stature, syndactyly, intellectual disability (often labeled mental retardation), and a dysmorphic face are characteristic.  Some individuals have cryptorchidism, seizures, and ectodermal abnormalities including nail hypoplasia, hirsutism, and microdontia.  Mental and physical delays are common.  The syndactyly usually involves only soft tissue between toes 2, 3, and 4 and fingers 3 and 4 accompanied by clinodactyly of the 5th finger.  Polydactyly is sometimes present while radiologically the radial head may show evidence of hypoplasia. 

Genetics

Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity in the CKAP2L gene (2q13) segregates with this phenotype. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in CKAP2L, the human homolog of the mouse Radmis gene, cause Filippi syndrome

Hussain MS, Battaglia A, Szczepanski S, Kaygusuz E, Toliat MR, Sakakibara S, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Nurnberg G, Moosa S, Yigit G, Beleggia F, Tinschert S, Clayton-Smith J, Vasudevan P, Urquhart JE, Donnai D, Fryer A, Percin F, Brancati F, Dobbie A, Smigiel R, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Wollnik B, Noegel AA, Newman WG, Nurnberg P. Mutations in CKAP2L, the human homolog of the mouse Radmis gene, cause Filippi syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Nov 6;95(5):622-32.

PubMed ID: 
25439729

Trichomegaly Plus Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Eyelashes are described as ‘long’, and the eyebrows are bushy.  The majority of individuals have poor vision secondary to severe receptor dysfunction.  Night blindness and severe photophobia are features in some cases.  Both retinal and choroidal atrophy have been diagnosed in the first 5 years of life and most patients have a progressive and extensive pigmentary retinopathy.

Systemic Features: 

Scalp alopecia and sparse body hair is common in spite of the trichomegaly of the eyebrows and eyelashes.  Frontal bossing has been noted in some patients.  Pituitary dysfunction is suggested by low growth hormone levels, features of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and possibly hypothyroidism.

Some deficit of cognitive function is usually present and a few patients have been described as mentally retarded.  There is evidence of progressive neurological damage both centrally and peripherally. Developmental milestones are often achieved late and some individuals have been observed to regress during the first decade of life.  The peripheral neuropathy includes both sensory and motor components.  Sensory nerve action potentials may be lost in the first decade while early motor functions may regress during the same period.  Several patients have had evidence of progressive cerebellar ataxia.

Genetics

Compund heterozygous mutations in PNPLA6 (19p13.2), coding for neuropathy target esterase, have been found in several patients presumed to have this condition.  Autosomal recessive inheritance has been proposed on the basis of a single family in which an affected brother and sister were born to first cousin parents.   

The relationship of this disorder to that found in two cousins, offspring of consanguineous matings, described as ‘cone-rod congenital amaurosis associated with congenital hypertrichosis: an autosomal recessive condition’ (204110 ) is unknown.  They were described as having visual impairment from birth and profound photophobia.  Fundus changes were minimal with a bull’s eye pattern of pigment changes in the macula described as indicative of a rod-cone congenital amaurosis.  ERG responses were unrecordable.  These individuals apparently did not have other somatic, psychomotor or neurologic deficits.

Mutations in PNPLA6 occur in other conditions including a form of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (209900), and Boucher-Neuhauser Syndrome (215470) also known as Chorioretinopathy, Ataxia, Hypogonadism Syndrome in this database.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for this condition although growth hormone and testosterone supplementation have been reported to have the appropriate selective effects.

References
Article Title: 

Neuropathy target esterase impairments cause Oliver-McFarlane and Laurence-Moon syndromes

Hufnagel RB, Arno G, Hein ND, Hersheson J, Prasad M, Anderson Y, Krueger LA, Gregory LC, Stoetzel C, Jaworek TJ, Hull S, Li A, Plagnol V, Willen CM, Morgan TM, Prows CA, Hegde RS, Riazuddin S, Grabowski GA, Richardson RJ, Dieterich K, Huang T, Revesz T, Martinez-Barbera JP, Sisk RA, Jefferies C, Houlden H, Dattani MT, Fink JK, Dollfus H, Moore AT, Ahmed ZM. Neuropathy target esterase impairments cause Oliver-McFarlane and Laurence-Moon syndromes. J Med Genet. 2015 Feb;52(2):85-94.

PubMed ID: 
25480986

Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

There is considerable clinical heterogeneity in this disorder.  Few patients have all of the clinical features and there is much variation in the severity of these.  Almost all segments of the eye can be involved.  The lashes are often lush and the eyebrows may be highly arched and bushy.  Lid fissures are often downward slanting (88%).  Congenital glaucoma, nystagmus, cataracts, lacrimal duct obstruction (37%), ptosis (29%), colobomas and numerous corneal abnormalities including keratoglobus, sclerocornea, and megalocornea have been reported.  Abnormal VEP waveforms and cone and cone-rod dysfunction have been found in the majority (78%) of patients tested.  Retinal pigmentary changes have been seen in some patients.  Refractive errors (usually myopia) occur in 56% of patients.  Visual acuities vary widely but about 20% of patients are visually handicapped.

Fluorescein angiography in a single patient revealed generalized vascular attenuation and extensive peripheral avascularity.  The AV transit time was prolonged with delayed venous filling and late small vessel leakage. 

Systemic Features: 

The facial features are reported to be characteristic but there are few distinctive signs.  The face is often broad and round, the nose is beaked, the mouth is small, and the lower lip appears to pout and protrudes beyond a short upper lip.  Smiles have been described as 'grimacing'.  It is common for the columella to protrude beyond the alae nasi.  The palate is narrow and highly arched and the laryngeal walls collapse easily which may lead to feeding problems and respiratory difficulties.  The ears may be rotated posteriorly.  The anterior hairline can appear low.

Among the more distinctive signs are the broad thumbs and great toes which are often deviated medially.  However, the distal phalanges of all fingers may be broad as well.  Bone fractures are common and patellar dislocations can be present as seen in the first two decades of life.  Hypotonia is a feature.  Numerous dental anomalies have been reported including crowded teeth, enamel hypoplasia, crossbite, and abnormal numbers of teeth.

Developmental delays are common.  Infancy and childhood milestones are often delayed.  Many patients have cognitive delays and some are mildly retarded.  Postnatal growth is subnormal and obesity is common.  A third of patients have a cardiac abnormality including septal defects, valvular defects, coarctation of the aorta, pulmonic stenosis, and patent ductus arteriosus.  Renal abnormalities occur frequently and almost all males have undescended testes.  Patients are at increased risk of tumors, both malignant and benign, many of which occur in the central nervous system.  Other problems are constipation and hearing loss.

Genetics

Evidence points to an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance secondary to mutations in CREBBP (16p13.3) but there is some genetic heterogeneity as mutations in EP300 (22q13) have also been associated with this disease (see Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome 2; 613684).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment is directed at specific clinical features such as glaucoma and strabismus.  Special education and vocational training may be helpful.  Hearing loss may respond to standard treatment.  Fractures and dislocations should receive prompt attention.  Cardiac anomalies may require surgical correction.

References
Article Title: 
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