hypotony

Baraitser-Winter Syndrome 1

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Ptosis (both unilateral and bilateral), hypertelorism, prominent epicanthal folds, and colobomata are common.  The iris stroma may be dysplastic and correctopia has been observed.  Visual acuity has not been measured.

Systemic Features: 

Postnatal growth retardation leads to short stature.  Microcephaly and morphological aberrations in the brain such as lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum and pachygyria are present.  Seizures and developmental delays are common.  Hearing loss is sensorineural in type.

The ears are low-set and the posterior hair line may be low as well.  The nasal bridge appears broad and the nose appears short. Male genitalia are often underdeveloped.  Bicuspid aortic valves, patent ductus arteriosus, and aortic stenosis have been reported.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the ACTB gene (7p22.1) are responsible for this apparent autosomal dominant syndrome.  However, all patients have been sporadic.

This condition is clinically similar to Baraitser-Winter syndrome 2 (614583) which is a unique entity caused by a mutation in ACTG1

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No specific treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

New ocular finding in Baraitser-Winter syndrome

Rall N, Leon A, Gomez R, Daroca J, Lacassie Y. New ocular finding in Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Eur J Med Genet. 2017 Oct 9. pii: S1769-7212(17)30156-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2017.10.006. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
29024830

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

Verloes A, Di Donato N, Masliah-Planchon J, Jongmans M, Abdul-Raman OA, Albrecht B, Allanson J, Brunner H, Bertola D, Chassaing N, David A, Devriendt K, Eftekhari P, Drouin-Garraud V, Faravelli F, Faivre L, Giuliano F, Guion Almeida L, Juncos J, Kempers M, Eker HK, Lacombe D, Lin A, Mancini G, Melis D, Lourenco CM, Siu VM, Morin G, Nezarati M, Nowaczyk MJ, Ramer JC, Osimani S, Philip N, Pierpont ME, Procaccio V, Roseli ZS, Rossi M, Rusu C, Sznajer Y, Templin L, Uliana V, Klaus M, Van Bon B, Van Ravenswaaij C, Wainer B, Fry AE, Rump A, Hoischen A, Drunat S, Riviere JB, Dobyns WB, Pilz DT. Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014 Jul 23.

PubMed ID: 
25052316

De novo mutations in the actin genes ACTB and ACTG1 cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome

Riviere JB, van Bon BW, Hoischen A, Kholmanskikh SS, O'Roak BJ, Gilissen C, Gijsen S, Sullivan CT, Christian SL, Abdul-Rahman OA, Atkin JF, Chassaing N, Drouin-Garraud V, Fry AE, Fryns JP, Gripp KW, Kempers M, Kleefstra T, Mancini GM, Nowaczyk MJ, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Roscioli T, Marble M, Rosenfeld JA, Siu VM, de Vries BB, Shendure J, Verloes A, Veltman JA, Brunner HG, Ross ME, Pilz DT, Dobyns WB. De novo mutations in the actin genes ACTB and ACTG1 cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 26;44(4):440-4.

PubMed ID: 
22366783

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 3B (Infantile Refsum Disease)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This peroxisomal disorder presents in the first year of life with both systemic and ocular features.  Night blindness is the major ocular feature and at least some have optic atrophy similar to the adult form.  Nystagmus may be present.  Reduction or absence of rod responses on ERG can be used in young children to document the retinopathy. Blindness and deafness commonly occur in childhood.

Systemic Features: 

This disorder is classified as a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) associated with the breakdown of phytanic acid.  Ataxia and features of motor neuron disease are evident early.  Hepatomegaly and jaundice may also be an early diagnostic feature as bile acid metabolism is defective.  Infant hypotonia is often seen.  Nonspecific facial dysmorphism has been reported as a feature. The teeth are abnormally large and often have yellowish discoloration.  Postural unsteadiness is evident when patients begin walking.  Diagnosis can be suspected from elevated serum phytanic and pipecolic acid (in 20% of patients) or by demonstration of decreased phytanic acid oxidation in cultured fibroblasts.  Other biochemical abnormalities such as hypocholesterolemia and elevated very long chain fatty acids and trihydroxycholestanoic acid are usually present.  Anosmia and mental retardation are nearly universal features.  Early mortality in infancy or childhood is common although some survive into the 2nd and 3rd decades.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) resulting from mutations in a number of PEX genes (PEX1, PEX2, PEX3, PEX12, PEX26).  It shares many features with other PBDs including those formerly called Zellweger syndrome (214100), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (215100), and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (601539).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Mannosidosis, Alpha B

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Many (probably most) patients have lens opacities and some have corneal opacities as well.  Nystagmus and strabismus have been described.  Pigmentary changes of a mottled nature can be present in the posterior pole and may be associated with retinal vessel attenuation and diminished ERG responses.  Retinal thinning can be demonstrated.  A mixture of hypo- and hyperautofluorescence is often visible.  Mild optic atrophy has been seen.  There is evidence for progressive visual loss, even late in life.  Eyebrows appear thick.    

Systemic Features: 

Mannosidosis is a highly variable multisystem disorder.  Onset may be in infancy but in other patients symptoms appear later in the first decade.  Progression of disease is more rapid in individuals with early onset (type 3) with rapid mental, motor deterioration and early death.  The characteristic coarse facial features usually are evident later in milder cases (types 1 and 2) that have mild or moderate intellectual disabilities.  Regardless, mannosidosis is relentlessly progressive with mental deterioration and motor disabilities.  Ataxia is a common feature.  Dental anomalies (diastema), large ears, macroglossia, joint stiffness,, hepatosplenomegaly, enlarged head circumference, hearing loss (sensorineural), increased susceptibility to infections, dysarthria, and spondylolysis may be present.

Genetics

Alpha-mannosidoosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from mutations in the MAN2B1 gene (19p13.2).  There is another form of mannosidosis known as beta A  (248510) caused by mutations in MANBA but ocular features have not been reported.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Prompt treatment for infections is required and prophylactic vaccinations are indicated.  All individuals should be seen annually and assistive devices such as wheel chairs and hearing aids prescribed when needed.

Gillespie Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Bilateral aniridia, partial or complete, is the ocular characteristic of Gillespie syndrome.  The iris may be relatively intact but immobile leading to the description in some patients of "dilated and fixed pupils", or congenital mydriasis.  The pupillary margin may be scalloped with iris strands to the lens.  The pupillary sphincter is sometimes absent and the mesodermal surface missing.  The fovea sometimes appears hypoplastic and some patients have decreased visual acuity.  Strabismus and ptosis are often present.  There may also be retinal hypopigmentation.  Cataract, glaucoma, and corneal opacities are not present. 

Systemic Features: 

Most patients have some degree of developmental delay ranging from difficulties with fine motor tasks to frank mental retardation.  Many have a hand tremor, some degree of hypotonia, and learning difficulties.  MRI imaging often shows cerebellar and sometimes cerebral hypoplasia. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal dominant disorder usually due to a heterozygous mutation in the PAX6 gene (11p13).  However, some patients with typical features do not have a mutation in this gene suggesting that there is genetic heterogeneity.  Some patients without point mutations nevertheless have defects in adjacent DNA suggesting a positional effect.  The possibility of autosomal recessive inheritance in some families with parental consanguinity cannot be ruled out.  The PAX6 gene plays an important role in iris development as it is also mutant in simple aniridia (106210) and in Peters anomaly (604229).

Mutations in the ITPR1 gene have also been identified in Gillespie syndrome.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available.

References
Article Title: 

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder 1B (neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy)

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This peroxisomal disorder presents in the first year of life with both systemic and ocular features.  Night blindness is the major ocular feature and at least some have optic atrophy similar to the adult form.  Central acuity is reduced secondary to macular degeneration.  A pigmentary retinopathy is frequently present and often follows the appearance of whitish retinal flecks in the midperipheray.  Nystagmus and cataracts are common features.  Reduction or absence of ERG responses can be used in young children to document the retinopathy.  Blindness and deafness commonly occur in childhood.

Systemic Features: 

This disorder is classified as a leukodystrophy, or disease of white matter of the brain, associated with the breakdown of phytanic acid.  Ataxia and features of motor neuron disease are evident early.  Hepatomegaly and jaundice may also be early diagnostic features as bile acid metabolism is defective.  Infant hypotonia is often seen.  Nonspecific facial dysmorphism has been reported.  The ears are low-set and epicanthal folds are present.  The teeth are abnormally large and often have yellowish discoloration.  Postural unsteadiness is evident when patients begin walking.  Diagnosis can be suspected from elevated serum phytanic and pipecolic acid (in 20% of patients) or by demonstration of decreased phytanic acid oxidation in cultured fibroblasts.  Other biochemical abnormalities such as hypocholesterolemia, and elevated very long chain fatty acids and trihydroxycholestanoic acid are usually present.  Anosmia, developmental delays, and mental retardation are nearly universal features.  Early mortality in infancy or childhood is common.

Genetics

This is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of peroxisome biogenesis caused by mutations in at least three genes, PEX1 (7q21-q22), PEX2 (8q21.1), and PEX6 (22q11-21).  Each is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.  The mechanism of disease is different from the classic or adult Refsum disorder (266500) and some have debated whether the term ‘infantile Refsum disease’ is appropriate.

This disorder shares some clinical features with other peroxisomal disorders such as Zellweger syndrome (214100) and rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (215100).  Zellweger syndrome (214100), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and infantile Refsum disease (601539) are now considered to be peroxisomal biogenesis or Zellweger spectrum disorders.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 
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