dystonia

Birk-Landau-Perez Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have oculomotor apraxia, saccadic pursuits, lack of fixation, and ptosis.  No pigmentary changes were seen in the fundi but the optic nerves have not been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive disorder in which psychomotor regression and loss of speech develop by 1 to 2 years of age, often appearing as the first sign of abnormalities.  Cognitive impairment can progress to profound intellectual disability.  Older patients have limb and truncal ataxia and experience frequent falls.  Muscle tone in the limbs is increased and children often exhibit dyskinesia, dystonia, and axial hypotonia.  General muscle weakness is often present.  No abnormalities have been seen on brain imaging.

Some patients develop a nephropathy with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and hyperechogenic kidneys though deterioration of the renal disease is slow.  Renal biopsy in one patient revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis but no individuals have reached end-stage renal failure.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SLC30A9 gene (4p13) are responsible for this disorder.  A single multigenerational consanguineous Bedouin family of 6 affected individuals has been reported with a transmission pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.  Electrolytes should be monitored and metabolic issues resulting from kidney malfunction may need to be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Spastic Ataxia 8, Autosomal Recessive, with Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reported ocular signs are limited to abnormal eye movements.  In other forms of spastic ataxia, nystagmus is evident in association with optic atrophy but no fundus examinations are reported in the 3 families with SPAX8.  Hypometric saccades and limited upgaze have also been found in these families.

Systemic Features: 

First signs and symptoms occur sometime in the first 5 years of life and often in the first year.   In 6 of 7 reported patients the presenting sign was nystagmus but one individual with reported onset of disease at age 5 years presented with ataxia.  Cerebellar signs, both truncal and limb, are usually present and the majority of individuals have evidence of dystonia.  Likewise, pyramidal signs are nearly always present.  Cerebellar dysarthria and titubation are often present with dystonic posturing and torticollis. 

Brain MRIs usually reveal cerebellar atrophy and widespread hypomyelination.  Two individuals in a single family had severe global psychomotor delays as well.  No sensory deficits were reported.  This disorder is progressive and patients in adulthood may require the use of a wheelchair.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the NKX6-2 (NKX6-2) gene (10q26.3) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported for the general condition.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in NKX6-2 Cause Progressive Spastic Ataxia and Hypomyelination

Chelban V, Patel N, Vandrovcova J, Zanetti MN, Lynch DS, Ryten M, Botia JA, Bello O, Tribollet E, Efthymiou S, Davagnanam I; SYNAPSE Study Group, Bashiri FA, Wood NW, Rothman JE, Alkuraya FS, Houlden H. Mutations in NKX6-2 Cause Progressive Spastic Ataxia and Hypomyelination. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jun 1;100(6):969-977.

PubMed ID: 
28575651

Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

External ophthalmoplegia in some form is usually present and there may be a supranuclear component.  Smooth horizontal movements are impaired and saccades are dysmetric.  Gaze-evoked nystagmus is a common finding.  The eyes are often described as 'bulging' and this has been attributed to eyelid retraction.  With time the abnormal saccadic movements slow resulting in ophthalmoparesis with restriction of upgaze.

Systemic Features: 

This form of spinocerebellar ataxia is considered to be the most frequent.  It is a progressive disease in all aspects which accounts for some of the considerable clinical heterogeneity reported.  Onset is likewise highly variable depending upon the number of repeats but usually sometime between the second to fifth decades.  In a large cohort of Azorean individuals the mean age of onset was reported to be 37 years.

An unsteady gait, dysarthric speech, general clumsiness, and diplopia are among the early symptoms.  Nystagmus, spasticity, and various autonomic signs including reduced bladder control may also be noted.  Chronic pain, sleep disturbances, impaired mental functioning, and memory deficits are often present and some authors have labelled these as indicative of dementia.

Virtually all clinical signs progress with ambulation difficulties requiring the need for assistive devices about a decade after the onset of disease.  Eventually signs of brain stem involvement appear with facial atrophy, perioral twitching, tongue fasciculations and atrophy, and dysphagia. Some degree of peripheral polyneuropathy with muscle wasting and loss of sensation are often present.  Tremors and other signs of Parkinsonism may be present.  Dystonic movements are often seen.

Imagining of the brain has revealed pontocerebellar atrophy and enlargement of the 4th ventricle but this is variable.  Nerve conduction studies documents involvement of the sensory nerves.  Neuropathologic studies show widespread neuronal loss in the CNS and spinal cord.

Genetics

This is considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an excess of heterozygous trinucleotide repeats in the ataxin3 gene (14q32) encoding glutamine.  The number in normal individuals is up to 44 repeats whereas patients with SCA3 have 52-86 repeats.  However, clinical signs of SCA3 have been found in patients with as few as 45 glutamine repeats.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Physical and occupational therapy combined with regular exercise has been reported to slow the progression of symptoms.

References
Article Title: 

Machado-Joseph disease

Sudarsky L, Coutinho P. Machado-Joseph disease. Clin Neurosci. 1995;3(1):17-22. Review.

PubMed ID: 
7614089

Kufor-Rakeb Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most patients have a supranuclear gaze paresis.  Patients later may have dystonic oculogyric spasms.

Systemic Features: 

This is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with juvenile onset.  First signs of Parkinisonism are evident between the ages of 12 and 16 years of age.  Within a year of onset severe motor handicaps develop along with some degree of dementia with aggression and visual hallucinations.  Cognitive decline is often a feature.  Fine tremors in the chin may be seen along with other extrapyramidal signs but these are not prominent in the limbs.  Instead there is often rigidity and bradykinesia.  Dysphagia, dysarthria, and ataxia are features in many patients.  Peripheral sensory neuropathy and anosmia are present in some individuals. 

Brain imaging often reveals generalized atrophy of the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brainstem.

Genetics

This condition results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (1p36.13).  

Biallelic mutations in the same gene are also responsible for spastic paraplegia 78 (617225) with somewhat similar clinical features except for the general absence of Parkinsonism.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There may be an initial therapeutic response to L-DOPA but this is often not maintained

References
Article Title: 

Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2/PARK9 gene cause complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78)

Estrada-Cuzcano A, Martin S, Chamova T, Synofzik M, Timmann D, Holemans T, Andreeva A, Reichbauer J, De Rycke R, Chang DI, van Veen S, Samuel J, Schols L, Poppel T, Mollerup Sorensen D, Asselbergh B, Klein C, Zuchner S, Jordanova A, Vangheluwe P, Tournev I, Schule R. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2/PARK9 gene cause complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78). Brain. 2017 Feb;140(Pt 2):287-305.

PubMed ID: 
28137957

Dystonia, Childhood Onset, With Optic Atrophy

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is often observed during the first decade of life and has been noted as early as 15 months.  It may be congenital.  Nystagmus has been seen in some patients.

Systemic Features: 

Signs of motor dysfunction are seen in the first decade of life, and as early as 15 months of age.  Motor development may be mildly delayed.  Features are variable and include facial dystonia, myoclonus, dyskinesia, dysarthria, dysphagia, limb spasticity, and chorea-like movements all of which may progress.  Some patients lose independent ambulation but cognition is not affected.

Brain imaging reveals hyperintense T2-weighted signals in the basal ganglia.

Genetics

The transmission pattern in 5 reported families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.  Biallelic mutations in the MECR gene (1p35) have been found in 7 affected individuals.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

MECR Mutations Cause Childhood-Onset Dystonia and Optic Atrophy, a Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Disorder

Heimer G, Keratar JM, Riley LG, Balasubramaniam S, Eyal E, Pietikainen LP, Hiltunen JK, Marek-Yagel D, Hamada J, Gregory A, Rogers C, Hogarth P, Nance MA, Shalva N, Veber A, Tzadok M, Nissenkorn A, Tonduti D, Renaldo F; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics., Kraoua I, Panteghini C, Valletta L, Garavaglia B, Cowley MJ, Gayevskiy V, Roscioli T, Silberstein JM, Hoffmann C, Raas-Rothschild A, Tiranti V, Anikster Y, Christodoulou J, Kastaniotis AJ, Ben-Zeev B, Hayflick SJ. MECR Mutations Cause Childhood-Onset Dystonia and Optic Atrophy, a Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Dec 1;99(6):1229-1244.

PubMed ID: 
27817865

Neurodegeneration with Ataxia, Dystonia, and Gaze Palsy, Childhood-Onset

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Vertical gaze palsy has its onset between 7 and 15 years of age.   Nystagmus and oculomotor apraxia are often present.

Systemic Features: 

Onset of unsteadiness, gait ataxia, and cognitive decline are evident in the first or second decades of life.  Dysdiadokinesis, dysarthria, dysmetria, dystonia, athetotic movements, signs of Parkinsonism with tremor may also be present.  Some patients have a mild hearing loss.  Tissue from muscle biopsies are normal.  Brain imaging reveals cerebellar atrophy in some families and iron deposition in the basal ganglia in others.

Many patients are wheelchair-bound eventually.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SQSTM1 gene (5q35.3) are responsible for this condition. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported but physical therapy, speech therapy, and special education may be of benefit.

References
Article Title: 

Absence of the Autophagy Adaptor SQSTM1/p62 Causes Childhood-Onset Neurodegeneration with Ataxia, Dystonia, and Gaze Palsy

Haack TB, Ignatius E, Calvo-Garrido J, Iuso A, Isohanni P, Maffezzini C, Lonnqvist T, Suomalainen A, Gorza M, Kremer LS, Graf E, Hartig M, Berutti R, Paucar M, Svenningsson P, Stranneheim H, Brandberg G, Wedell A, Kurian MA, Hayflick SA, Venco P, Tiranti V, Strom TM, Dichgans M, Horvath R, Holinski-Feder E, Freyer C, Meitinger T, Prokisch H, Senderek J, Wredenberg A, Carroll CJ, Klopstock T. Absence of the Autophagy Adaptor SQSTM1/p62 Causes Childhood-Onset Neurodegeneration with Ataxia, Dystonia, and Gaze Palsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Sep 1;99(3):735-43.

PubMed ID: 
27545679

Coats Plus Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Retinal telangiectasia and exudates (Coats disease) occur in association with intracranial cysts, calcifications and extraneurologic manifestations in this condition.  Coats disease lesions may also occur in Labrune syndrome (614561) and, of course, in isolation.

Whereas simple Coats disease almost exclusively occurs unilaterally and in males, both sexes and both eyes may have Coats retinal lesions in this syndrome.

Systemic Features: 

As a result of intracranial calcifications, leukodystrophy and brain cysts, patients have a variety of neurologic signs including spasticity, ataxia, dystonia, cognitive decline, and seizures.  Vascular ectasias may also occur throughout the body such as the intestines, stomach, and in the liver increasing the risk of GI bleeding and portal hypertension with anemia and thrombocytopenia.  Some individuals have sparse hair, abnormal pigmentation of the skin, and dysplastic nails as well. 

Some extraretinal features are also found in patients with dyskeratosis congenita (127550), and in Labrune syndrome (614561).

Genetics

This autosomal recessive pleotropic disorder results from compound heterozygous mutations in the CTC1 gene (17p13.1).  Several patients with mutations in STN1 have also been reported.

Most cases of simple Coats disease occur sporadically.  No associated locus or mutation has been found.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general condition has been reported.  Specific treatment for the retinal vascular and brain lesions might be of benefit.  Physical therapy and special education should be considered in selected patients.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects. J Exp Med. 2016 Jul 25;213(8):1429-40

Simon AJ, Lev A, Zhang Y, Weiss B, Rylova A, Eyal E, Kol N, Barel O, Cesarkas K, Soudack M, Greenberg-Kushnir N, Rhodes M, Wiest DL, Schiby G, Barshack I, Katz S, Pras E, Poran H, Reznik-Wolf H, Ribakovsky E, Simon C, Hazou W, Sidi Y, Lahad A, Katzir H, Sagie S, Aqeilan HA, Glousker G, Amariglio N, Tzfati Y, Selig S, Rechavi G, Somech R. Mutations in STN1 cause Coats plus syndrome and are associated with genomic and telomere defects. J Exp Med. 2016 Jul 25;213(8):1429-40.

PubMed ID: 
27432940

Mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, cause Coats plus

Anderson BH, Kasher PR, Mayer J, Szynkiewicz M, Jenkinson EM, Bhaskar SS, Urquhart JE, Daly SB, Dickerson JE, O'Sullivan J, Leibundgut EO, Muter J, Abdel-Salem GM, Babul-Hirji R, Baxter P, Berger A, Bonafe L, Brunstom-Hernandez JE, Buckard JA, Chitayat D, Chong WK, Cordelli DM, Ferreira P, Fluss J, Forrest EH, Franzoni E, Garone C, Hammans SR, Houge G, Hughes I, Jacquemont S, Jeannet PY, Jefferson RJ, Kumar R, Kutschke G, Lundberg S, Lourenco CM, Mehta R, Naidu S, Nischal KK, Nunes L, Ounap K, Philippart M, Prabhakar P, Risen SR, Schiffmann R, Soh C, Stephenson JB, Stewart H, Stone J, Tolmie JL, van der Knaap MS, Vieira JP, Vilain CN, Wakeling EL, Wermenbol V, Whitney A, Lovell SC, Meyer S, Livingston JH, Baerlocher GM, Black GC, Rice GI, Crow YJ. Mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, cause Coats plus. Nat Genet. 2012 Jan 22;44(3):338-42.

PubMed ID: 
22267198

Cataracts, Congenital, Intellectual Disability, Abnormal Striatum, and ADHD

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cataracts (not further described) were described as congenital although the diagnosis was usually made early in the first decade of life.  One patient was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with glaucoma and a cloudy cornea of the left eye.  Another patient had cataract surgery.  Visual acuities have not been reported.

Systemic Features: 

Four members of a consanguineous Saudi family have been reported with growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, dystonia, and spasticity.  IQs in the range of 77-89 were reported.  Linguistic delay is common.  Dysarthria and decreased cognitive function are present.  MRIs revealed thinning of the lentiform nucleus and swelling of the caudate heads.  

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the KCNA4 (11p14.1) (176266) gene are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for the general condition.  Cataract surgery may be considered.

References
Article Title: 

KCNA4 deficiency leads to a syndrome of abnormal striatum, congenital cataract and intellectual disability

Kaya N, Alsagob M, D'Adamo MC, Al-Bakheet A, Hasan S, Muccioli M, Almutairi FB, Almass R, Aldosary M, Monies D, Mustafa OM, Alyounes B, Kenana R, Al-Zahrani J, Naim E, Binhumaid FS, Qari A, Almutairi F, Meyer B, Plageman TF, Pessia M, Colak D, Al-Owain M. KCNA4 deficiency leads to a syndrome of abnormal striatum, congenital cataract and intellectual disability. J Med Genet. 2016 Aug 31. pii: jmedgenet-2015-103637. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103637. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
27582084

Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 4

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Oculomotor apraxia is usually noted after the ataxia and dystonia are apparent.

Systemic Features: 

The mean age of first symptoms is 4.3 years with dystonia being the first symptom.  Cerebellar ataxia is usually the second symptom to appear.  Cognitive impairment is present in most but not all patients with this condition.  This can progress to severe dementia in some individuals.  Dystonia may become attenuated with time.  Peripheral neuropathy with decreased vibration sense and areflexia is often present.  Cerebellar atrophy is present in all patients.

Motor difficulties such as weakness and muscle atrophy may lead to loss of independent mobility by the second to third decades.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PNKP gene (19q13.33) are responsible for this disorder.

Mutations in this gene have also been associated with an infantile form of epileptic encephalopathy, microcephaly, and developmental delay (613402).

See also Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (208920) with hypoalbuminemia, Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 2 (606002), and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 3 (615217).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no general treatment for this condition but physical therapy may be helpful in the early stages.

References
Article Title: 

Spastic Ataxia 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Horizontal nystagmus is present in some patients.

Systemic Features: 

Cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and spasticity of the lower limbs appear in the first two decades of life.  The spasticity may involve all 4 limbs late in life.  Cognition is not impacted. Cervical dystonia has been noted. No consistent changes have been found on brain imaging.  The neurologic signs are slowly progressive although patients may remain ambulatory.

Tremor, clonus, and extrapyramidal chorea has been seen in several families with what has been called spastic paraplegia-58 which may be the same disorder as SPAX2 since mutations are found in the same gene (KIF1C).  Symptoms and prognosis are similar in these conditions except for the reported presence of developmental delay and mild mental retardation in some individuals diagnosed to have SPG58.

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive condition as the result of homozygous mutations in the KIF1C gene (17p13.2).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment for this disease is available although speech and physical therapy may be helpful.

References
Article Title: 

Motor protein mutations cause a new form of hereditary spastic paraplegia

Caballero Oteyza A, Battaloglu E, Ocek L, Lindig T, Reichbauer J, Rebelo AP, Gonzalez MA, Zorlu Y, Ozes B, Timmann D, Bender B, Woehlke G, Zuchner S, Schols L, Schule R. Motor protein mutations cause a new form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Neurology. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print].

PubMed ID: 
24808017

Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders

Novarino G, Fenstermaker AG, Zaki MS, Hofree M, Silhavy JL, Heiberg AD, Abdellateef M, Rosti B, Scott E, Mansour L, Masri A, Kayserili H, Al-Aama JY, Abdel-Salam GM, Karminejad A, Kara M, Kara B, Bozorgmehri B, Ben-Omran T, Mojahedi F, Mahmoud IG, Bouslam N, Bouhouche A, Benomar A, Hanein S, Raymond L,Forlani S, Mascaro M, Selim L, Shehata N, Al-Allawi N, Bindu PS, Azam M, Gunel M, Caglayan A, Bilguvar K, Tolun A, Issa MY, Schroth J, Spencer EG, Rosti RO, Akizu N, Vaux KK, Johansen A, Koh AA, Megahed H, Durr A, Brice A, Stevanin G, Gabriel SB, Ideker T, Gleeson JG. Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders. Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):506-11.

PubMed ID: 
24482476

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