CYP1B1

Anterior Segment Dysgenesis 6

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a congenital anterior segment dysplasia syndrome.  Iris hypoplasia with transillumination, corectopia, iridodenesis, and iridocorneal adhesions can be seen.  Increased intraocular pressure is a risk and ectopia lentis is often present.  Peters anomaly and defects in all layers of the cornea may be present.

No foveal hypoplasia is present.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.

Genetics

A single male patient of native American/French Canadian background has been reported with compound heterozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene (2p22.2).

See Anterior Chamber Dysgenesis 8 for another autosomal recessive disorder with somewhat similar clinical features.  Three families with 4 affected individuals have been reported with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the CPAMD8 gene (19p13.11).

The genes FOXE3 and PAX6 are characterized as transcription factors and play important roles in ocular development.  However, while mutations in these are frequently found in patients with dysgenesis of the anterior chamber they often cause more widespread ocular and systemic anomalies (e.g., Gillespie syndrome [206700]).  Therefore in this database the anterior chamber constellations of anomalies associated with mutations in these genes are not considered to be simplex conditions.

See also related disorders iridogoniodysgenesis type 1 (601631) and type 2 (137600), and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis (107250).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Lifelong pressure monitoring is important.

References
Article Title: 

Phenotypic heterogeneity of CYP1B1: mutations in a patient with Peters' anomaly

Vincent A, Billingsley G, Priston M, Williams-Lyn D, Sutherland J, Glaser T, Oliver E, Walter MA, Heathcote G, Levin A, Heon E. Phenotypic heterogeneity of CYP1B1: mutations in a patient with Peters' anomaly. J Med Genet. 2001 May;38(5):324-6. PubMed PMID: 11403040; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1734880.

PubMed ID: 
11403040

Anterior Segment Dysgenesis 8

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This is a congenital anterior segment dysplasia syndrome with considerable clinical heterogeneity.  Iris hypoplasia with transillumination, corectopia, iridodenesis, and iridocorneal adhesions are often seen.  Intraocular pressure may be elevated in older individuals.  Ectopia lentis is often present.  Lenticular opacities consisting primarily of posterior cortical opacification are common.  Visual acuity varies from 6/6 to 6/24.

No foveal hypoplasia is present but one of four reported patients was described with bilateral optic nerve dysplasia.     

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.

Genetics

Three families with 4 affected individuals with similar clinical features have been reported with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the CPAMD8 gene (19p13.11).

A single male patient of native American/French Canadian background with somewhat similar clinical features has been reported with compound heterozygous mutations in the CYP1B1 gene (2p22.2) but this is likely a unique condition (Anterior Segment Dysgenesis 6).

The genes FOXE3 and PAX6 are characterized as transcription factors and play important roles in ocular development.  However, while mutations in these are frequently found in patients with dysgenesis of the anterior chamber they often cause more widespread ocular and systemic anomalies (e.g., Gillespie syndrome [206700]).  Therefore in this database the anterior chamber constellations of anomalies associated with mutations in these genes are not considered to be simplex conditions. 

See also related disorders iridogoniodysgenesis type 1 (601631) and type 2 (137600), and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis (107250).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Several patients have had cataract surgery.  Monitoring intraocular pressure throughout life is necessary and prompt treatment for glaucoma is important.

References
Article Title: 

Glaucoma, Congenital Primary A

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This may be the most common type of early (infantile, congenital) glaucoma.  Elevated intraocular pressure may be present at birth but sometimes is not evident until the first year of life or in some cases even later.  Irritability, photophobia, and epiphora are early signs.  The globe is often buphthalmic, the cornea is variably cloudy, and breaks in the Descemet membrane (Haab striae) may be present.  Frequently the iris root is inserted anteriorly in the region of the trabecular meshwork.  The anterior chamber often appears abnormally deep.  Early reports of a membrane covering the angle structures have not been confirmed histologically.  The mechanism causing elevated IOP seems to be excessive collagen tissue in the anterior chamber angle that impedes normal aqueous outflow.   The pressure is usually in the range of 25-35 mmHg but this is variable as the course can be intermittent.  It should be considered a bilateral disease although about one-fourth of patients have only unilateral elevations of pressure even though trabecular abnormalities are present.

Optic cupping may begin temporally but the more typical glaucomatous cupping eventually occurs.

Systemic Features: 

No consistent systemic abnormalities are associated with primary congenital glaucoma.  However, it is important to note that glaucoma is a feature of many congenital malformation syndromes and chromosomal aberrations.

Genetics

Evidence from many sources suggests that congenital glaucoma of this type is an autosomal recessive disorder. Parental consanguinity is common, the segregation ratio is approximately 25%, and the occurrence of congenital glaucoma among all offspring of two affected parents can be cited as support for this mode of inheritance.  Many cases occur sporadically but this is consistent with expectations in small human sibships.  Curiously, though, males are affected more often than females. Congenital glaucoma can result from both homozygous (25%) and compound heterozygous mutations (56%) in the CYP1B1 gene on chromosome 2 (2p22-p21) which codes for cytochrome P4501B1.

Another autosomal recessive infantile (congenital) glaucoma (600975), GLC3 or type B, is caused by mutations in GLC3B located at 1p36.2-p36.1.  A third locus at 14q24.3 has also been proposed  for GLC3, type C.  Autosomal recessive primary congenital glaucoma (so-called) type D (613086) is caused by a mutation in LTBP2 located at 14q24 near the GLC3C locus and heterozygous mutations in TEK are responsible for type E (617272).

Other modes of inheritance have been described and, for now, this form of glaucoma, like others, has to be considered a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder pending additional genotyping.  Early onset glaucoma is also a feature of numerous malformation and chromosomal disorders.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Some of the usual glaucoma drugs are ineffective as a result of obstruction to aqueous flow through the trabecular meshwork so that surgical treatment is the therapy of choice in most cases.   Monitoring of axial length has been proposed as helpful in gauging the effectiveness of pressure control.  In some patients the pressure normalizes spontaneously. 

It is important in the evaluation of patients with glaucoma that systemic evaluations be done because of the frequent syndromal associations.

References
Article Title: 
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