cognitive impairment

Birk-Landau-Perez Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have oculomotor apraxia, saccadic pursuits, lack of fixation, and ptosis.  No pigmentary changes were seen in the fundi but the optic nerves have not been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive disorder in which psychomotor regression and loss of speech develop by 1 to 2 years of age, often appearing as the first sign of abnormalities.  Cognitive impairment can progress to profound intellectual disability.  Older patients have limb and truncal ataxia and experience frequent falls.  Muscle tone in the limbs is increased and children often exhibit dyskinesia, dystonia, and axial hypotonia.  General muscle weakness is often present.  No abnormalities have been seen on brain imaging.

Some patients develop a nephropathy with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and hyperechogenic kidneys though deterioration of the renal disease is slow.  Renal biopsy in one patient revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis but no individuals have reached end-stage renal failure.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SLC30A9 gene (4p13) are responsible for this disorder.  A single multigenerational consanguineous Bedouin family of 6 affected individuals has been reported with a transmission pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.  Electrolytes should be monitored and metabolic issues resulting from kidney malfunction may need to be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Gabriele-de Vries Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A number of nondiagnostic signs occur in the periocular structures as part of the general facial dysmorphism.  There is a general fullness to the periocular area, most evident in the upper eyelids.  The lid fissures slant downward and the eyebrows are sparse.  Strabismus is often present.  Ptosis has been noted in a few individuals.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic signs are inconsistent and highly variable.  Intrauterine growth is usually below average.  Feeding problems are evident from birth.  The facial dysmorphology is highlighted by a high, broad forehead and accentuated by micrognathia and midface hypoplasia.  The ears are posteriorly rotated.  General development is delayed and milestones, if achieved, are delayed.  Behavioral problems can be manifest as anxiety and some individuals have features of the autism spectrum.  Abnormal movements such as tremor and dystonia are sometimes present.

Brain imaging may reveal delayed myelination, frontal gliosis, white matter abnormalities, and enlarged ventricles.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the YY1 gene (14q32) have been identified in this condition.  The gene is a transcription factor that acts both as a repressor and an activator in specific circumstances.  Virtually all cases occur de novo.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective generalized treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction

Gabriele M, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Germain PL, Vitriolo A, Kumar R, Douglas E, Haan E, Kosaki K, Takenouchi T, Rauch A, Steindl K, Frengen E, Misceo D, Pedurupillay CRJ, Stromme P, Rosenfeld JA, Shao Y, Craigen WJ, Schaaf CP, Rodriguez-Buritica D, Farach L, Friedman J, Thulin P, McLean SD, Nugent KM, Morton J, Nicholl J, Andrieux J, Stray-Pedersen A, Chambon P, Patrier S, Lynch SA, Kjaergaard S, Torring PM, Brasch-Andersen C, Ronan A, van Haeringen A, Anderson PJ, Powis Z, Brunner HG, Pfundt R, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers JHM, van Bon BWM, Lelieveld S, Gilissen C, Nillesen WM, Vissers LELM, Gecz J, Koolen DA, Testa G, de Vries BBA. YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction. Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Jun 1;100(6):907-925.

PubMed ID: 
28575647

3MC Syndromes

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The major ocular features involve the periocular structures.  These result in the typical facial dysmorphism and include hypertelorism, blepharoptosis, blepharophimosis, and highly arched eyebrows. Ptosis, unilateral or bilateral, can be present.

One patient was reported to have unilateral aniridia and a corneal leucoma.  Tear duct atresia was reported in another individual.

Systemic Features: 

Systemic features are highly variable in their presence and severity.   Facial clefting, growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are present about half the time in some combination while craniosynostosis, urogenital anomalies, and radioulnar synostosis are seen in about a third of individuals.  More rare features include cardiac defects and abdominal midline defects (omphalocele and diastasis recti).

Genetics

This condition (3MC) is now postulated to include at least 3 disorders (Malpuech-Michels-Mingarelli-Carnevale syndromes) and considered here as a single autosomal recessive disease complex with overlapping clinical features that requires genotyping for diagnostic separation.  These are: 3MC1 syndrome (257920) resulting from homozygous mutations in the MASP1 gene (3q27.3), 3MC2 syndrome (265050) caused by mutations in the COLEC11 gene (2p25.3) and 3MC3 (248340) with mutations in the COLEC10 gene (8q24.12).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective general treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development

Munye MM, Diaz-Font A, Ocaka L, Henriksen ML, Lees M, Brady A, Jenkins D, Morton J, Hansen SW, Bacchelli C, Beales PL, Hernandez-Hernandez V. COLEC10 is mutated in 3MC patients and regulates early craniofacial development. PLoS Genet. 2017 Mar 16;13(3):e1006679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006679. eCollection 2017 Mar.

PubMed ID: 
28301481

Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome

Rooryck C, Diaz-Font A, Osborn DP, Chabchoub E, Hernandez-Hernandez V, Shamseldin H, Kenny J, Waters A, Jenkins D, Kaissi AA, Leal GF, Dallapiccola B, Carnevale F, Bitner-Glindzicz M, Lees M, Hennekam R, Stanier P, Burns AJ, Peeters H, Alkuraya FS, Beales PL. Mutations in lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1 cause 3MC syndrome. Nat Genet. 2011 Mar;43(3):197-203.

PubMed ID: 
21258343

Spastic Paraplegia 78

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Reduced upgaze with nystagmus and strabismus have been reported.  

Systemic Features: 

This progressive neurodegenerative disorder usually has its onset in young adults but the signs and symptoms are highly variable.  Ambulation and gait difficulties combined with spasticity and lower limb weakness are common signs.  Ataxia and dysarthria are also important signs.  Some individuals have dementia while others have only mild cognitive impairment.  Some individuals have mild signs of Parkinsonism.

Brain imaging may show cerebellar and cortical atrophy with a thin corpus callosum. 

Genetics

This condition results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (1p36.13).

The same gene is also mutated in the Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (606693), an early-onset form of Parkinsonism.  

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2/PARK9 gene cause complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78)

Estrada-Cuzcano A, Martin S, Chamova T, Synofzik M, Timmann D, Holemans T, Andreeva A, Reichbauer J, De Rycke R, Chang DI, van Veen S, Samuel J, Schols L, Poppel T, Mollerup Sorensen D, Asselbergh B, Klein C, Zuchner S, Jordanova A, Vangheluwe P, Tournev I, Schule R. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2/PARK9 gene cause complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG78). Brain. 2017 Feb;140(Pt 2):287-305.

PubMed ID: 
28137957

Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

Kara E, Tucci A, Manzoni C, Lynch DS, Elpidorou M, Bettencourt C, Chelban V, Manole A, Hamed SA, Haridy NA, Federoff M, Preza E, Hughes D, Pittman A, Jaunmuktane Z, Brandner S, Xiromerisiou G, Wiethoff S, Schottlaender L, Proukakis C, Morris H, Warner T, Bhatia KP, Korlipara LV, Singleton AB, Hardy J, Wood NW, Lewis PA, Houlden H. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain. 2016 Jul;139(Pt 7):1904-18.

PubMed ID: 
27217339

Encephalopathy, Progressive, with Amyotrophy and Optic Atrophy

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Optic atrophy is present.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive neurodegenerative condition in which hypotonia and delayed development are evident between birth and 14 months of age.  Developmental milestones, if attained, soon regress accompanied by distal amyotrophy, cognitive impairment that may be severe, ataxia, spastic tetraplegia, dysarthria, and scoliosis.  Seizures often occur.

Brain imaging reveals cerebellar and cerebral atrophy.  Iron accumulation may be seen in the pallidum and substantia nigra.  The corpus callosum appears abnormally thin.  Muscle biopsy shows evidence of denervation atrophy.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the TBCE gene (1q42.3) can cause this disorder.  

Biallelic mutations in the same gene also cause Kenny-Caffey syndrome type 1 (244460) and a hypoparathyroidism dysmorphism syndrome (241410).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

TBCE Mutations Cause Early-Onset Progressive Encephalopathy with Distal Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Sferra A, Baillat G, Rizza T, Barresi S, Flex E, Tasca G, D'Amico A, Bellacchio E, Ciolfi A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Torella A, Zanni G, Diodato D, Piermarini E, Niceta M, Coppola A, Tedeschi E, Martinelli D, Dionisi-Vici C, Nigro V, Dallapiccola B, Compagnucci C, Tartaglia M, Haase G, Bertini E. TBCE Mutations Cause Early-Onset Progressive Encephalopathy with Distal Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Oct 6;99(4):974-983.

PubMed ID: 
27666369

Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy

Flex E, Niceta M, Cecchetti S, Thiffault I, Au MG, Capuano A, Piermarini E, Ivanova AA, Francis JW, Chillemi G, Chandramouli B, Carpentieri G, Haaxma CA, Ciolfi A, Pizzi S, Douglas GV, Levine K, Sferra A, Dentici ML, Pfundt RR, Le Pichon JB, Farrow E, Baas F, Piemonte F, Dallapiccola B, Graham JM Jr, Saunders CJ, Bertini E, Kahn RA, Koolen DA, Tartaglia M. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Oct 6;99(4):962-973.

PubMed ID: 
27666370

Ataxia and Polyneuropathy, Adult-Onset

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

This condition has its onset in young adults.  Early ocular signs are gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus and defective ocular pursuit movements with the full range of extraocular movements.  Some patients but not all have optic atrophy.  Ptosis is not present.

Systemic Features: 

Gait disturbances have their onset in the first or second decades of life.  The gait may be broad-based.  Intermittent hemiparesis with headache, nausea and vomiting has been reported in some individuals.  Absent ankle jerks and extensor plantar responses have been noted but general muscle tone and strength is usually normal.   An axonal sensorimotor neuropathy may be present in midlife as documented by nerve conduction studies.  MRIs of the brain may reveal cerebellar atrophy.

Mild cognitive problems have been reported in a few individuals.

Genetics

This is a mitochondrial disorder secondary to mutations in the mitochondrial MT-ATP6 gene.

Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment has been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Spastic Paraplegia 75

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nystagmus with optic atrophy is usually present and one individual had glaucoma. 

Systemic Features: 

This is an early-onset and progressive neurodegenerative disorder.  Hypotonia may be present at birth.  A spastic gait and difficulty walking is noted in early childhood and most individuals never walk unassisted. Yong adults have spastic paresis with extensor plantar responses and clonus has been reported.  Distal muscle atrophy in the lower extremities has been noted.  Speech is dysarthric.  Brain imaging has been normal in some patients whereas others have mild atrophy of the cerebellum and the corpus callosum.  Cognitive impairment is variable with some individuals showing poor school performance while others are described as mentally retarded.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the MAG gene (19q13.12) are responsible for this disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No effective treatment has been reported although physical therapy may be helpful. Special education, speech and physical therapy, and low vision devices might also be of benefit.

References
Article Title: 

Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder

Lossos A, Elazar N, Lerer I, Schueler-Furman O, Fellig Y, Glick B, Zimmerman BE, Azulay H, Dotan S, Goldberg S, Gomori JM, Ponger P, Newman JP, Marreed H, Steck AJ, Schaeren-Wiemers N, Mor N, Harel M, Geiger T, Eshed-Eisenbach Y, Meiner V, Peles E. Myelin-associated glycoprotein gene mutation causes Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease-like disorder. Brain. 2015 Sep;138(Pt 9):2521-36.

PubMed ID: 
26179919

Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders

Novarino G, Fenstermaker AG, Zaki MS, Hofree M, Silhavy JL, Heiberg AD, Abdellateef M, Rosti B, Scott E, Mansour L, Masri A, Kayserili H, Al-Aama JY, Abdel-Salam GM, Karminejad A, Kara M, Kara B, Bozorgmehri B, Ben-Omran T, Mojahedi F, Mahmoud IG, Bouslam N, Bouhouche A, Benomar A, Hanein S, Raymond L,Forlani S, Mascaro M, Selim L, Shehata N, Al-Allawi N, Bindu PS, Azam M, Gunel M, Caglayan A, Bilguvar K, Tolun A, Issa MY, Schroth J, Spencer EG, Rosti RO, Akizu N, Vaux KK, Johansen A, Koh AA, Megahed H, Durr A, Brice A, Stevanin G, Gabriel SB, Ideker T, Gleeson JG. Exome sequencing links corticospinal motor neuron disease to common neurodegenerative disorders. Science. 2014 Jan 31;343(6170):506-11.

PubMed ID: 
24482476

Spondyloocular Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Cataracts have been noted in several patients in the first and second decades of life.  Nystagmus and ‘amblyopia’ have also been reported.  Several individuals have had retinal detachments.

Systemic Features: 

Only a small number of families have been reported.  Poor bone mineralization with frequent fractures in long bones and vertebral compression seem to be consistent features often noted in the first and second decades of life.  Moderate osteoporosis and advanced bone age with platyspondyly may be present.  The vertebral fractures lead to abnormal spinal curvature and may result in shortened stature. 

Some sensorineural hearing loss is sometimes detected in the first decade.  The ears have been described as low-set and posteriorly rotated.  A variety of cardiac defects have been reported including mitral valve prolapse, septal defects, and anomalies of the aortic valve. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder secondary to homozygous mutations in the XYLT2 gene located at 17q21.33. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Pamidronate given intravenously seems to have little therapeutic value.  Hearing aids can be beneficial.  Lensectomy may be of benefit although no reports of cataract surgery have been reported.  Fractures need immediate attention.  Patient may become wheelchair-bound by the second decade.  Special education may be helpful for those with learning difficulties.

References
Article Title: 

CHOPS Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

There is usually some degree of proptosis and apparent hypertelorism.  The eyebrows are bushy and the eyelashes are luxurious.  One of three patients had cataracts and another had mild optic atrophy.

Systemic Features: 

The overall facial appearance may resemble Cornelia de Lange syndrome with hypertrichosis and a coarse, round facies.  Head circumference is low normal.  Septal defects and a patent ductus arteriosus are often present.  Laryngeal and tracheal malacia predispose to recurrent pulmonary infections and chronic lung disease.  Skeletal dysplasia includes brachydactyly and anomalous vertebral bodies resulting in short stature (3rd percentile).  Genitourinary abnormalities include cryptorchidism, horseshoe kidney, and vesiculoureteral reflux.  Delayed gastric emptying and reflux have been reported.

Genetics

Heterozygous mutations in the AFF4 gene (5q31.1) have been identified in 3 unrelated individuals with this condition.  No familial cases have been identified.  The gene is a core component of the super elongation complex that is critical to transcriptional elongation during embryogenesis.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for the general disorder.  Tracheostomy was required in 2 of three reported patients. 

References
Article Title: 

Germline gain-of-function mutations in AFF4 cause a developmental syndrome functionally linking the super elongation complex and cohesin

Izumi K, Nakato R, Zhang Z, Edmondson AC, Noon S, Dulik MC, Rajagopalan R, Venditti CP, Gripp K, Samanich J, Zackai EH, Deardorff MA, Clark D, Allen JL, Dorsett D, Misulovin Z, Komata M, Bando M, Kaur M, Katou Y, Shirahige K, Krantz ID. Germline gain-of-function mutations in AFF4 cause a developmental syndrome functionally linking the super elongation complex and cohesin. Nat Genet. 2015 Apr;47(4):338-44.

PubMed ID: 
25730767

Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 4

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Oculomotor apraxia is usually noted after the ataxia and dystonia are apparent.

Systemic Features: 

The mean age of first symptoms is 4.3 years with dystonia being the first symptom.  Cerebellar ataxia is usually the second symptom to appear.  Cognitive impairment is present in most but not all patients with this condition.  This can progress to severe dementia in some individuals.  Dystonia may become attenuated with time.  Peripheral neuropathy with decreased vibration sense and areflexia is often present.  Cerebellar atrophy is present in all patients.

Motor difficulties such as weakness and muscle atrophy may lead to loss of independent mobility by the second to third decades.

Genetics

Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PNKP gene (19q13.33) are responsible for this disorder.

Mutations in this gene have also been associated with an infantile form of epileptic encephalopathy, microcephaly, and developmental delay (613402).

See also Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 1 (208920) with hypoalbuminemia, Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 2 (606002), and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia 3 (615217).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no general treatment for this condition but physical therapy may be helpful in the early stages.

References
Article Title: 

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