choreoathetosis

Birk-Landau-Perez Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Patients have oculomotor apraxia, saccadic pursuits, lack of fixation, and ptosis.  No pigmentary changes were seen in the fundi but the optic nerves have not been described.

Systemic Features: 

This is a progressive disorder in which psychomotor regression and loss of speech develop by 1 to 2 years of age, often appearing as the first sign of abnormalities.  Cognitive impairment can progress to profound intellectual disability.  Older patients have limb and truncal ataxia and experience frequent falls.  Muscle tone in the limbs is increased and children often exhibit dyskinesia, dystonia, and axial hypotonia.  General muscle weakness is often present.  No abnormalities have been seen on brain imaging.

Some patients develop a nephropathy with renal insufficiency, hypertension, and hyperechogenic kidneys though deterioration of the renal disease is slow.  Renal biopsy in one patient revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis but no individuals have reached end-stage renal failure.

Genetics

Homozygous mutations in the SLC30A9 gene (4p13) are responsible for this disorder.  A single multigenerational consanguineous Bedouin family of 6 affected individuals has been reported with a transmission pattern consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment for the general disorder has been reported.  Electrolytes should be monitored and metabolic issues resulting from kidney malfunction may need to be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Dislocated lenses are the only significant ocular features of this disorder.  In one patient the lenses were said to be in normal position at 5.5 months of age but mild nasal subluxation of both lenses was present at 11 months.  In a series of 22 patients, 10 had dislocated lenses and one had spherophakia.  Lens dislocations occur early and maybe even congenitally in some cases as the diagnosis has been made in seven children before one year of age.  On the other hand it is not a consistent sign since the lenses were not dislocated in seven individuals who were examined specifically for this sign.

Systemic Features: 

Outside of the eye, the main features of this disorder are secondary to neurological damage.  Symptoms of irritability, poor feeding, ataxia, and language development may be seen in the first year or two of life.  Respiratory distress can be a feature in neonates.  Hypotonia, dystonia and choreoathetosis may be seen as well.  Seizures (sometimes with opisthotonus) often occur in the first days or weeks of life.  Later, generalized hypertonia and hyperactive reflexes are present.  Global developmental delays occur in nearly 80% of patients.  However, some patients also have a later onset with a milder course indicating that the full range of clinical expression remains to be determined.

Genetics

A number of mutations in the SUOX gene on chromosome 12 (12q13.13) cause this rare autosomal recessive disorder.  Less than 50 cases have been reported worldwide.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Not enough patients have been evaluated for long enough to determine the optimum treatment but low protein diets and restriction of sulfur containing amino acids have been tried with mixed results.

References
Article Title: 

Ataxia-Telangiectasia

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The ocular manifestations are striking although of little clinical consequence.  The conjunctivae have prominent telangiectases which usually develop between 3 and 5 years of age.  These apparently do not occur intraocularly.    Oculomotor apraxia is often an earlier sign consisting of difficulty in initiation of smooth pursuit movements which patients may modify by head motion in the direction of attempted gaze.  This aspect can be helpful in diagnosis of AT in young children with cerebellar ataxia. 

Systemic Features: 

Telangiectases are often found in the pinnae, on the cheeks, and on the forearms, usually after the onset of neurological signs.  However, this is also a disorder with multiple systemic signs, the most serious of which are unusual sensitivity to ionizing radiation, excessive chromosomal breakage, a deficiency in the immune system, mild cognitive impairment, and increased risk of malignancies.  Lymphomas, often of B-cell origin, and leukemia, usually of T-cell origin, are the most common malignancies but there is a significantly increased risk of breast cancer as well. Serum IgG2 and IgA levels are often reduced and sinopulmonary infections are common.  Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are usually increased.  The ataxia is progressive and often begins as truncal unsteadiness with limbs involved later.  It is often accompanied by choreoathetosis and/or dystonia which may result in severe disability by the second decade.  Life span is shortened and many patients succumb to their disease by the 3rd and 4th decades. 

In some famiies with confirmed mutations in ATM the disorder presents with signs of primary torsion dystonia and myoclonus-dystonia.  These signs may resemble an apparent autosomal dominant pattern with parent-child transmission.  It is unclear whether these families represent a variant of AT or a unique disorder.  The latter is suggested by an earlier onset of signs, the lack of cerebellar atrophy,  and the absence of ataxia and ocular telangiectases on initial presentation.  The risk of malignancies in these famiies is high.

Some of these signs have been reported in milder form among heterozygous carriers as well.  The most serious is an increased risk of malignancy, perhaps as much as 6.1 times that of non-carriers.  This combined with the inherent sensitivity to ionizing radiation has led to the suggestion that X-rays should be used with caution, especially when considering mammograms among female relatives.

 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive disorder as a result of mutations in the ATM gene located at 11q22-q23.  Affected offspring of consanguineous matings are often homozygous for this mutation whereas those from unrelated parents are usually compound heterozygotes.  There is some evidence of genetic heterogeneity based on both clinical and DNA studies (AT variants).

Other conditions with oculomotor apraxia are: ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (208920), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 2 (602600), and Cogan type oculomotor apraxia (257550) which lacks other neurologic signs. Oculomotor apraxia may be the presenting sign in Gaucher disease (230800, 230900, 231000).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known for the neurologic manifestations.  However, patients and first degree relatives should be monitored for malignancies.  Childhood vaccinations may lead to widespread viral dissemination as a consequence of the immune defect.

References
Article Title: 

Ataxia telangiectasia: a review

Rothblum-Oviatt C, Wright J, Lefton-Greif MA, McGrath-Morrow SA, Crawford TO, Lederman HM. Ataxia telangiectasia: a review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016 Nov 25;11(1):159. Review.

PubMed ID: 
27884168

Cognitive Phenotype in Ataxia-Telangiectasia

Hoche F, Frankenberg E, Rambow J, Theis M, Harding JA, Qirshi M, Seidel K, Barbosa-Sicard E, Porto L, Schmahmann JD, Kieslich M. Cognitive Phenotype in Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 May 5.

PubMed ID: 
25037873

Variant ataxia-telangiectasia presenting as primary-appearing dystonia in Canadian Mennonites

Saunders-Pullman R, Raymond D, Stoessl AJ, Hobson D, Nakamura T, Pullman S, Lefton D, Okun MS, Uitti R, Sachdev R, Stanley K, San Luciano M, Hagenah J, Gatti R, Ozelius LJ, Bressman SB. Variant ataxia-telangiectasia presenting as primary-appearing dystonia in Canadian Mennonites. Neurology. 2012 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22345219.

PubMed ID: 
22345219
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