brachycephaly

Ayme-Gripp Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Most patients have congenital cataracts which may be mild and "oil drop" in appearance.  The eyes appear far apart, the eyebrows are broad, and the palpebral fissures may slant upward or downward.  Ptosis has been reported.  Aphakic glaucoma has been reported in one juvenile who had unilateral cataract surgery at 5 months of age.

Systemic Features: 

The phenotype is heterogeneous and not all patients have all features.  The facial features are said to resemble those of the Down syndrome with brachycephaly, a high forehead, and a flat midface with shallow orbits and malar hypoplasia.  The ears are small, low-set, and posteriorly rotated.  The nose is short and the nasal bridge is broad and flat.  The mouth is small and the upper lip is thin.  The scalp hair may be sparse and the nails sometimes appear dystrophic.

The fingers are sometimes brachydactylous and tapered.  Short stature is common and the joints may have limited motion.  Dislocation of the radial heads is seen rarely while radioulnar synostosis has been seen in a few individuals.  Postnatal short stature is common.

Seizures often occur.  The ventricles appear large and cerebral atrophy has been reported.  Intellectual disability and mental retardation are common. However, at least one individual attended university although he had been diagnosed in childhood with Asberger disease.   Neurosensory hearing loss is common.

Genetics

This autosomal dominant condition results from heterozygous mutations in the MAF (16q32.2) gene.  At least one mother/son transmission event has been reported.

Many of the same features are seen in what has been called the Fine-Lubinsky syndrome (601353) but without mutations in the MAF gene.  It may not be a unique disorder.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment has been reported but specific anomalies such as cataracts should be addressed.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies

Niceta M, Stellacci E, Gripp KW, Zampino G, Kousi M, Anselmi M, Traversa A, Ciolfi A, Stabley D, Bruselles A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Prudente S, Fiorenza MT, Boitani C, Philip N, Niyazov D, Leoni C, Nakane T, Keppler-Noreuil K, Braddock SR, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Palleschi A, Campeau PM, Lee BH, Pouponnot C, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Katsanis N, Sol-Church K, Tartaglia M. Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 7;96(5):816-25.

PubMed ID: 
25865493

Mental Retardation, X-Linked 99, Syndromic, Female-Restricted

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Palpebral fissures are generally shortened and may slant up or down.  Cataracts of unknown morphology have been reported and strabismus is common.

Systemic Features: 

The systemic phenotype is highly variable.  Skull and facial anomalies are common with brachycephaly, bitemporal narrowing, and a broad low nasal bridge. There is general developmental delay in both motor and cognitive abilities.  Patients are short in stature while scoliosis, hip dysplasia, and post-axial polydactyly may be present.  The teeth may be malformed and numerous (29%) of individuals have hypertrichosis.  Nearly a third of individuals have a cleft palate/bifid uvula.   Heart malformations, primarily atrial septal defects, are found in about half of affected individuals and urogenital anomalies such as renal dysplasia are relatively common.  Feeding difficulties have been reported while anal atresia is present in about half of patients.   

Brain imaging reveals hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, Dandy-Walker malformations, cerebellar hypoplasia, and abnormal gyration patterns in the frontal lobe.  Generalized hypotonia has been diagnosed in half of reported patients and seizures occur in 24%.

Genetics

This female-restricted syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the USP9X gene (Xp11.4).  X-chromosome inactivation is skewed greater than 90% in the majority of females but the degree of skewing in one study was independent of clinical severity.  The majority of cases occur de novo.

In males, hemizygous mutations in the USP9X gene (300919) cause a somewhat similar disorder (MRX99) without the majority of the congenital malformations having mainly the intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, and behavioral problems.

Pedigree: 
X-linked dominant, mother affected
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no known treatment for the general disorder but individual anomalies or defects such as atrial septal defects, cleft palate, and anal atresia might be surgically corrected.

References
Article Title: 

De Novo Loss-of-Function Mutations in USP9X Cause a Female-Specific Recognizable Syndrome with Developmental Delay and Congenital Malformations

Reijnders MR, Zachariadis V, Latour B, Jolly L, Mancini GM, Pfundt R, Wu KM, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CM, Veenstra-Knol HE, Anderlid BM, Wood SA, Cheung SW, Barnicoat A, Probst F, Magoulas P, Brooks AS, Malmgren H, Harila-Saari A, Marcelis CM, Vreeburg M, Hobson E, Sutton VR, Stark Z, Vogt J, Cooper N, Lim JY, Price S, Lai AH, Domingo D, Reversade B; DDD Study, Gecz J, Gilissen C, Brunner HG, Kini U, Roepman R, Nordgren A, Kleefstra T. De Novo Loss-of-Function Mutations in USP9X Cause a Female-Specific Recognizable Syndrome with Developmental Delay and Congenital Malformations. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Feb 4;98(2):373-81.

PubMed ID: 
26833328

Cataracts, Congenital, Deafness, Short Stature, Developmental Delay

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The facial features superficially resemble those often seen in Down syndrome patients with slanting (up or down) lid fissures and epicanthal folds. The amount of ptosis is variable.  Lens opacities are usually congenital in origin.  Hypopigmentation of the macula has been noted in two individuals.

Systemic Features: 

The characteristic facies may be evident at birth and requires karyotyping to rule out the trisomy of Down syndrome. Brachycephaly and a flat face may be present.  The mouth is often small and the nasal tip is shortened while the philtrum is long and smooth.  Some degree of intellectual disability and neurosensory hearing loss soon become evident.  There is postnatal growth delay and most individuals are short in stature.  The ears are low-set and rotated posteriorly.

The skeletal anomalies are not fully delineated but one patient had bilateral radioulnar synostosis while hip chondrolysis requiring hip replacement has been seen in two adult individuals.  Limited motion may be present in some joints, both large and small.  Seizures have been reported in a few individuals. Nails may appear dystrophic and there are variable tooth anomalies present. 

Genetics

The responsible heterozygous mutations are in the MAF gene (16q22-q23).  Type 4 (CCA4) (610202) autosomal dominant cerulean cataracts with multiple morphologies may also result from mutations in this transcription factor gene.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment for this condition is known.  Congenital cataracts can be removed.  Some patients may benefit from special education.   Seizure medications may be indicated and some patients can benefit from hearing aids.  Severe joint disease may require replacement.

References
Article Title: 

Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies

Niceta M, Stellacci E, Gripp KW, Zampino G, Kousi M, Anselmi M, Traversa A, Ciolfi A, Stabley D, Bruselles A, Caputo V, Cecchetti S, Prudente S, Fiorenza MT, Boitani C, Philip N, Niyazov D, Leoni C, Nakane T, Keppler-Noreuil K, Braddock SR, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Palleschi A, Campeau PM, Lee BH, Pouponnot C, Stella L, Bocchinfuso G, Katsanis N, Sol-Church K, Tartaglia M. Mutations Impairing GSK3-Mediated MAF Phosphorylation Cause Cataract, Deafness, Intellectual Disability, Seizures, and a Down Syndrome-like Facies. Am J Hum Genet. 2015 May 7;96(5):816-25.

PubMed ID: 
25865493

Kaufman Oculocerebrofacial Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Alterations in the morphology of periocular structures is the most consistent ocular feature.  These include epicanthal folds, upward-slanting lid fissures, ptosis, blepharophimosis, sparse eyebrows, and telecanthus.  However, pale optic discs, iris colobomas, microcornea, strabismus, nystagmus, and hypertelorism are variably present. 

Systemic Features: 

There is both intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation.  Hypotonia is often noted along with general psychomotor delays.  Neonatal respiratory distress and laryngeal stridor may be present.  The intellectual disability can be severe.  Corpus callosum aplasia and hypoplasia have been reported.  Microcephaly and brachycephaly with delayed suture closure are features.  The face is long and narrow and the mouth is disproportionally large.  A high arched palate can be present and the pinnae are often deformed, posteriorly rotated and may be accompanied by preauricular skin tags. The teeth appear widely spaced (diastema) and the lower jaw is underdeveloped.

Genetics

Kaufman BPIDS syndrome results from homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the UBE3B gene (12q23).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No general treatment is available although repair of some specific malformations is possible.

References
Article Title: 

Deficiency for the ubiquitin ligase UBE3B in a blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome

Basel-Vanagaite L, Dallapiccola B, Ramirez-Solis R, Segref A, Thiele H, Edwards A, Arends MJ, Miro X, White JK, Desir J, Abramowicz M, Dentici ML, Lepri F, Hofmann K, Har-Zahav A, Ryder E, Karp NA, Estabel J, Gerdin AK, Podrini C, Ingham NJ, Altmuller J, Nurnberg G, Frommolt P, Abdelhak S, Pasmanik-Chor M, Konen O, Kelley RI, Shohat M, Nurnberg P, Flint J, Steel KP, Hoppe T, Kubisch C, Adams DJ, Borck G. Deficiency for the ubiquitin ligase UBE3B in a blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Dec 7;91(6):998-1010.

PubMed ID: 
23200864

An oculocerebrofacial syndrome

Kaufman RL, Rimoin DL, Prensky AL, Sly WS. An oculocerebrofacial syndrome. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1971 Feb;7(1):135-8.

PubMed ID: 
5006210

Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Nearly all patients (80+ %) have microphthalmia and bilateral congenital cataracts.  Microcornea is common.  The eyebrows may be hypoplastic and the eyelashes likewise are sparse.  The lid fissures often slant down and telecanthus has been noted.  The distance between the two eyes appears reduced.  Blue sclerae, nystagmus, strabismus, and glaucoma are present in 10 to 30% of patients.

Systemic Features: 

The facies are sometimes described as 'bird-like' with a beaked nose, brachycephaly, and micrognathia.  Microstomia with a shortened ramus and forward displacement of the termporomandibular joints is characteristic. Upper airway obstruction may occur with severe respiratory distress.  The forehead is relatively prominent, the palate is highly arched, and the teeth are often small and some may be missing with misalignment of others.  A few teeth may even be present at birth (natal teeth).  Children appear petite and are often short in stature.  Scalp hair is thin, especially in the frontal and occipital areas, and the skin is atrophic.  Developmental delays are common but most patients have normal or near-normal intelligence.

Genetics

Most cases are sporadic but some have mutations in the GJA1 gene (6q21-q23.2).  Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been postulated.  Reproductive fitness may be low but rare affected individuals have had affected offspring.  Males and females are equally affected.

This disorder is allelic to oculodentodigital dysplasia (257850, 164200).

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Airway obstruction may require intervention and its risks must be considered during administration of general anesthesia.  Lens opacification may be severe even early in life and requires prompt surgical intervention to prevent amblyopia.

References
Article Title: 

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Orbital hypoplasia, short, abnormally slanted (up or down) lid fissures, and sometimes lid notching (colobomas?) are characteristic facial features as are bushy eyebrows and synophrys.  Lacrimal duct stenosis has been noted.  The eyes are described as 'small' but no ophthalmological examination has been performed to document microphthalmia or other ocular anomalies.  No mention is made of visual problems.

Systemic Features: 

Premature closure of the coronal suture and midface hypoplasia lead to striking brachycephaly.  The scalp hairline is low and scalp hair is abundant and coarse.  In fact, hypertrichosis is seen throughout the body.  Hypo- and microdontia with irregularly spaced teeth and a high arched palate are common features.  Clefts of the soft palate has been observed.  The ears can be small and rotated posteriorly.  The labia majora are hypoplastic as are the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes.  Mild syndactyly of the second and third fingers and toes have been described.  The nails may be abormally small.  Conductive hearing loss may be present.  Growth and psychomotor development seem to be normal although some patients have been described to have a 'stocky' build.  The facial features tend to coarsen over time.

Genetics

Autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested but nothing is known about the gene locus.  All 5 reported patients have been female.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is known.

References
Article Title: 

Crouzon Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The primary ocular features result from pattern-specific, premature synostoses of cranial sutures.  The orbits are often shallow resulting in proptosis, sometimes to such an extent that exposure keratitis or even spontaneous subluxation of the globe results.  This is exacerbated by the midface hypoplasia that is often present.  As many as 22% of patients have optic atrophy, most likely secondary to chronic papilledema from elevated intracranial pressure.  Strabismus is common, often with a V-pattern exotropia.  Overaction of the inferior obliques and underaction of the superior obliques have been described.

Systemic Features: 

The coronal sutures are the most commonly affected by the premature synostosis and hence the skull is often brachycephalic and the forehead is prominent.  Increased intracranial pressure is a risk.  The nose is parrot-beaked and the upper lip is short.  Maxillary hypoplasia from the midface underdevelopment can cause crowding and displacement of the upper teeth.

Genetics

This type of craniosynostosis is caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 gene, FGFR2, located at 10q26.  It is generally considered an autosomal dominant disorder based on familial cases but most occur sporadically.  A paternal age effect on mutations has been found. 

The same gene is mutant in other craniosynostosis disorders sometimes clinically separated such as Pfeiffer Syndrome (101600), Jackson-Weiss syndrome (123150), Beare-Stevenson Syndrome (123790), Apert Syndrome (101200), and Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome (101400).  However, this entire group has many overlapping features making classification on clinical grounds alone difficult.  Only Apert syndrome (101200) is caused by a unique mutation whereas other syndromes seem to owe their existence to multiple mutations.

 

 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Exposure keratitis must be treated.  Cranial surgery has been necessary for some patients to relieve the papilledema but the post operative outcome can be complicated by hydrocephalus.

References
Article Title: 
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