anterior chamber dysplasia

Aniridia 2

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

A 17-year-old male with this condition was diagnosed at the age of two years with bilateral iris hypoplasia.  Cataracts were seen at the age of 17 years.  There was no foveal depression.

In a 5 generation Chinese family there were additional signs including optic atrophy, ectopia lentis, pigmentary retinopathy, and 'dysplasia' of the trabecular meshwork in 5 members.

Systemic Features: 

No systemic abnormalities have been reported.  A single extensively studied patient, who had no developmental problems, was normal by renal ultrasound, audiometric studies, and neurologic evaluations.

Genetics

Autosomal dominant aniridia is the result of PAX6 (a transcription regulator gene) dysfunction.  In the majority of cases there are mutations in the PAX6 gene itself as in AN1.  There are reports, however, of familial aniridia in which direct PAX6 mutations have been excluded.  Two additional forms of aniridia in which there are alterations in genes that modulate the expression of PAX6 have been reported.  AN2 described here with mutations in ELP4 (a nucleotide variant within an intron of the ELP4 gene (11p13) located distal to the 3-prime end of the PAX6 gene, plus AN3 (617142) with mutations in TRIM44.  Both ELP4 and TRIM44 are regulators of the PAX6 transcription gene.

Aniridia 2 has been reported in one patient with a nucleotide variant within an intron of the ELP4 gene (11p13) located distal to the 3-prime end of the PAX6 gene.  The gene product is a cis-regulatory enhancer.  

Other evidence for aniridia resulting from regulatory modification of PAX6 gene function comes from families in which there are structural alterations such as deletions in chromosome 11, downstream of the PAX6 gene location.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal dominant
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

Treatment has not been reported.

References
Article Title: 

Galloway-Mowat Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Microphthalmia, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds and ptosis are prominent ocular features.  Other manifestations include corneal opacities, cataracts, and optic atrophy.  Nystagmus of a roving nature is seen in all individuals and is usually present at birth.  There is evidence of visual impairment in more than 90% of individuals.  Features of an anterior chamber dysgenesis such as a hypoplastic iris are sometimes present.

The ocular features of this syndrome have not been fully described.

Systemic Features: 

Infants are born with low birth weight due to intrauterine growth retardation and there is often a history of oligohydramnios.  Newborns are often floppy and hypotonic although spasticity may develop later.  A small midface and microcephaly (80%) with a sloping forehead and a flat occiput are frequently evident.  The ears are large, floppy, and low-set while the hard palate is highly arched and the degree of micrognathia can be severe.  The fists are often clenched and the digits can appear narrow and arachnodactylous.  Hiatal hernias may be present.

Many patients develop features of the nephrotic syndrome in the first year of life with proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia due to glomerular kidney disease and renal system malformations.  Renal biopsies show focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the majority of glomeruli.

Evidence of abnormal neuronal migration with brain deformities such as cystic changes, porencephaly, encephalomalacia, and spinal canal anomalies have been reported.  MRI imaging shows diffuse cortical and cerebellar atrophy atrophic optic nerves, and thinning of the corpus callosum.  The normal striated layers of the lateral geniculate nuclei are obliterated.  The cerebellum shows severe cellular disorganization with profound depletion of granule cells and excessive Bergmann gliosis.  The vermis is shortened. 

Multifocal seizures are sometimes (40%) seen in infancy and early childhood and the EEG generally shows slowed and disorganized backgound and sometimes a high-voltage hypsarrhythmia.  The degree of psychomotor delay and intellectual disability is often severe.   Most patients are unable to sit independently (90%), ambulate (90%), or make purposeful hand movements (77%).  The majority (87%) of children have extrapyramidal movements and a combination of axial dystonia and limb chorea.  Mean age of death is about 11 years (2.7 to 28 years in one series) and most die from renal failure.

Genetics

Gallaway-Mowat syndrome is likely a spectrum of disease.  Homozygous mutations in the WDR73 gene (15q25) are responsible for one form of this syndrome.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

There is no treatment for GAMOS.

References
Article Title: 

Recessive nephrocerebellar syndrome on the Galloway-Mowat syndrome spectrum is caused by homozygous protein-truncating mutations of WDR73

Jinks RN, Puffenberger EG, Baple E, Harding B, Crino P, Fogo AB, Wenger O, Xin B, Koehler AE, McGlincy MH, Provencher MM, Smith JD, Tran L, Al Turki S, Chioza BA, Cross H, Harlalka GV, Hurles ME, Maroofian R, Heaps AD, Morton MC, Stempak L, Hildebrandt F, Sadowski CE, Zaritsky J, Campellone K, Morton DH, Wang H, Crosby A, Strauss KA. Recessive nephrocerebellar syndrome on the Galloway-Mowat syndrome spectrum is caused by homozygous protein-truncating mutations of WDR73. Brain. 2015 Aug;138(Pt 8):2173-90.  PubMed PMID: 26070982.

PubMed ID: 
26070982

Loss-of-Function Mutations in WDR73 Are Responsible for Microcephaly and Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome: Galloway-Mowat Syndrome

Colin E, Huynh Cong E, Mollet G, Guichet A, Gribouval O, Arrondel C, Boyer O, Daniel L, Gubler MC, Ekinci Z, Tsimaratos M, Chabrol B, Boddaert N, Verloes A, Chevrollier A, Gueguen N, Desquiret-Dumas V, Ferre M, Procaccio V, Richard L, Funalot B, Moncla A, Bonneau D, Antignac C. Loss-of-Function Mutations in WDR73 Are Responsible for Microcephaly and Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome: Galloway-Mowat Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2014 Dec 4;95(6):637-48..

PubMed ID: 
25466283
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