albinotic fundus

Albinism, Oculocutaneous, Type V

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

The phenotype in the two families studied includes photophobia, nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and decreased visual acuity.  The fundus is hypopigmented.

Systemic Features: 

The hair is golden-colored and the skin is described as white. 

Genetics

The specific gene causing this form of oculocutaneous albinism has not been identified.  However, an area of homozygosity in the region of 4q24 has been identified in 6 members in two families belonging to a large consanguineous Pakistani pedigree in which it segregates with the OCA5 phenotype. 

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

No treatment is available for oculocutaneous albinism but appropriately tinted glasses could be beneficial.

References
Article Title: 

Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism

Montoliu L, Gronskov K, Wei AH, Martinez-Garcia M, Fernandez A, Arveiler B, Morice-Picard F, Riazuddin S, Suzuki T, Ahmed ZM, Rosenberg T, Li W. Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Jan;27(1):11-18. Review.

PubMed ID: 
24066960

Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome

Clinical Characteristics
Ocular Features: 

Oculocutaneous hypopigmentation is common to all types of HPS.  The ocular manifestations are similar to that of other types of albinism.  Iris transillumination defects, nystagmus, and strabismus are common features.   Visual acuity is usually stable in the range of 20/40-20/300 and often accompanied by photophobia.  Foveal hypoplasia and fundus hypopigmentation are present similar to that found in other hypopigmentation disorders.  The same is true of excessive decussation of retinal neuron axons at the chiasm.  Many patients have significant refractive errors. 

Systemic Features: 

In addition to decreased hair, ocular, and skin pigmentation, HPS patients suffer from bleeding diathesis, platelet deficiencies, and accumulation of ceroid material in lysosomes.  Pigment can be found in large amounts in reticuloendothelial cells and in the walls of small blood vessels.  Some of the same features are found in Chediak-Higashi  syndrome (214500) which, however, has additional qualitative changes in leukocytes.   HPS2 differs from other forms of HPS in having immunodeficiency and congenital neutropenia.  Some patients, especially those with HPS1 and HPS4 mutations, have restrictive lung disease secondary to pulmonary fibrosis often causing symptoms in the third and fourth decades of life.  Others have granulomatous colitis, kidney failure, and cardiomyopathy.  Solar skin damage is a risk, including actinic keratosis, nevi, lentigines and basal cell carcinoma.

Bleeding time is prolonged secondary to an impairment of the normal aggregation response of platelets.  Easy bruising, epistaxis, prolonged bleeding during menstruation, after tooth extraction, and after minor surgical procedures are often reported.  Platelets lack the normal number of 'dense bodies'.  Coagulation factor activity and platelet counts are normal.

The amount of hair and skin pigmentation is highly variable.  Some patients are so lightly pigmented that they are misdiagnosed as having tyrosinase-negative albinism while others have yellow to brown hair with irides blue to hazel.  Some darkening of hair is common. 

Genetics

This is an autosomal recessive genetically heterogeneous condition resulting from mutations in at least 12 loci: HPS1 (203300) at 10q23.1-q23.2, AP3B1 causing HPS2 (608233) at 5q14.1, and AP3D1 (617050) whereas in types HPS3 (606118) at 3q24, HPS4 (606682) at 22q11.2-q12.2, HPS5 (607521) at 11p15-p13, HPS6 (607522) at 10q24.32 the mutations themselves have not been characterized.  HPS7 is caused by mutations in the DTNBP1 gene (607145) located at locus 6p22.3 and HPS8 by mutations in the BLOC1S3 gene (609762) at 19q13.  The nature of the mutations is variable and often unique to the population in which they are found. 

Chediak-Higashi  syndrome (214500) is a somewhat similar disorder but with leukocyte abnormalities and results from a different gene mutation.

Pedigree: 
Autosomal recessive
Treatment
Treatment Options: 

It has been suggested that any patients with pigmentation disorders should be asked about bleeding problems to rule out HPS.  A hematologic consultation should be obtained if necessary, especially before elective surgery, to avoid bleeding complications through the use of appropriate preoperative measures.   Low vision aids can be helpful.  The skin should be protected from sunburn.  Lifelong surveillance is required for ocular and systemic problems.  The use of aspirin and indomethacin should be avoided. 

References
Article Title: 

Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome

Ammann S, Schulz A, Krageloh-Mann I, Dieckmann NM, Niethammer K, Fuchs S, Eckl KM, Plank R, Werner R, Altmuller J, Thiele H, Nurnberg P, Bank J, Strauss A, von Bernuth H, Zur Stadt U, Grieve S, Griffiths GM, Lehmberg K, Hennies HC, Ehl S. Mutations in AP3D1 associated with immunodeficiency and seizures define a new type of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Blood. 2016 Feb 25;127(8):997-1006.

PubMed ID: 
26744459
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